Ch. 1- Mental Health and Mental Illness

Which step of the hierarchy of needs does an individual possesses a feeling of self-fulfillment and realization of their highest potential?
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Terms in this set (65)
What is the state manifested by a specific syndrome which consists of all the nonspecifically induced changes within a biological system?StressWhat are the three stages of general adaption syndrome?Alarm reaction stage, stage of resistance, and stage of exhaustionWhat stage of the general adaption syndrome does the responses to fight-or-flight syndrome initiate?Alarm reaction stageWhat stage of the general adaption syndrome does an individual use physiological responses of the first stage as defense in an attempt tp adapt to the stressor?Stage of ResistanceIf adaption occurs during the second stage of general adaption syndrome, stage of resistance, what happens?the third stage is prevented or delayedWhat stage of the general adaption syndrome does prolonged exposure to the stressor cause the body to become adjusted?Stage of exhaustionWhat diseases can occur during the stage of exhaustion in the general adaption syndrome?Headaches, mental disorders, coronary artery disease, ulcers, colitisWhat happens if the stage of exhaustion is not reversed?exhaustion or deathWhat are the two biological responses associated with the fight-or-flight syndrome?The immediate and sustained responsesName some things that occur in the immediate response to fight-or-flight syndrome.-Adrenal medulla releases epinephrine and norepinephrine in bloodstream -Pupils dilate -Secretion from lacrimal glands increase -Bronchioles dilate and RR increase -Cardiac contraction increases causing an increase in cardiac output, HR, and BP -GI motility and secretions decrease -Increase in glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis and decrease in glycogen synthesis -increase in ureter motility -increase in sweat glands -LipolysisName some things that occur during the sustained response of the fight-or-flight syndrome.-ACTH stimulates adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, causing an increase in gluconeogenesis and retention of sodium and water, causing a decreased immune response and inflammatory process -Vasopressin (ADH) increases fluid retention and increases BP -GH increases serum glucose and free fatty acids -Thyrotropic hormone stimulates thyroid to increase BMR -Gonadotropins decrease sec hormones causing decreased libido and impotenceWhat are the two major, primary psychological responses to stress?Anxiety and griefWhat is the diffuse apprehension that is vague in nature and is associated with feelings of uncertainty and helplessness?AnxietyWhy are low levels of anxiety adaptive?Provides motivation for survivalWhat are Peplau's 4 levels of anxiety?Mild, Moderate, Severe, and PanicWhat level of anxiety is seldom a problem, tension is experience in response to day-to-day events, and prepares people for action?Mild AnxietyWhat level of anxiety does the perceptual field diminish and the individuals becomes less alert to events around them causing their attention span and concentration to decrease?Moderate AnxietyWhat level of anxiety is the perceptual field greatly diminished, causing the attention span to be extremely limited and physical/emotional symptoms are evident?Severe AnxietyWhat level of anxiety is the most intense state causing the individual to be unable to focus on even on detail around them and loss of contact with reality, hallucinations, or delusions may occur?Panic AnxietyWhat are some coping mechanisms people may use during mild anxiety?Sleeping, eating, exercise, smoking, crying, yawning, drinking, daydreaming, laughing, cursing, pacing, foot swinging, fidgeting, nail biting, and finger tappingWhat is a defense mechanism that occurs during mild-to-moderate anxiety that is deployed by the ego in face of threat to biological or psychological integrity?Ego defense mechanismsWhat ego defense mechanism is occurring when an individual is covering up real or perceived weakness by emphasizing a trait one considers more desirable?CompensationWhat ego defense mechanism is occurring when an individual is refusing to acknowledge the existence of a real situation or feelings associated with it?DenialWhat ego defense mechanism is occurring when an individual is transferring feelings from one target to another that is less threatening or neutral?DisplacementWhat ego defense mechanism is occurring when an individual is attempting to make excuses or formulate logical reasons to justify unacceptable feelings or behaviors?RationalizationWhat ego defense mechanism is occurring when an individual is preventing unacceptable/undesirable thoughts and behaviors from being expressed by exaggerating opposite thoughts and types of behaviors?Reaction FormationWhat ego defense mechanism is occurring when an individual is responding to stress by retreating to earlier level of development and comfort measures associated with that level of functioning?RegressionWhat ego defense mechanism is occurring when an individual is attempting to increase self-worth by acquiring certain attributes and characteristics of an individual one admires?IdentificationWhat ego defense mechanism is occurring when an individual is attempting to avoid expressing actual emotions associated with stress by using intellectual processes?IntellectualizationWhat ego defense mechanism is occurring when an individual is integrating beliefs and values of another person into one's own ego structure?IntrojectionWhat ego defense mechanism is occurring when an individual is separating a thought/memory from the feeling, tone, or emotion associated with it?IsolationWhat ego defense mechanism is occurring when an individual is attributing feelings or impulses unacceptable to one's self to another person?ProjectionWhat ego defense mechanism is occurring when an individual is involuntarily blocking unpleasant feelings and experiences from one's awareness?RepressionWhat ego defense mechanism is occurring when an individual is rechanneling drives and impulses that are personally or socially unacceptable into activities that are constructive?SublimationWhat ego defense mechanism is occurring when an individual is voluntarily blocking unpleasant feelings and experiences from one's awareness?SuppressionWhat ego defense mechanism is occurring when an individual is symbolically negating or cancelling out an experience one finds intolerable?UndoingWhat level of anxiety can contribute to a number of physiological disorders when remaining unresolved over an extended period of time?Moderate to severe anxietyWhat is a psychiatric disturbance characterized by excessive anxiety expressed directly or altered through defense mechanisms?NeurosisWhat level of anxiety does neurosis occur?Severe anxietyWhat are some common characteristics of someone who has neurosis?-Aware they are experiencing distress -Aware their behaviors ae maladaptive -Unaware of psychological cause of distress -Feel helpless to change situation - No loss of contact with realityWhat is a form of panic anxiety where there is significant thought disturbances in which reality testing is impaired, resulting in delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, or catatonic behavior?PsychosisWhat are some common characteristics seen in psychosis?-exhibit minimal distress -unaware behaviors are maladaptive -unaware of any psychological problems -exhibiting a flight from reality into less stressful world or one in which they are attempting to adaptWhat is a subjective state of emotional , physical, and social responses to the loss of a valued entity?GriefWhat are the stages of grief?1. Denial 2. Anger 3. Bargaining 4. Depression 5.AcceptanceWhat stage of grief is there a stage of shock or disbelief; reality of loss in not acknowledged?Stage 1- DenialWhat stage of grief is their envy and resentment towards individuals not affected by loss?Stage 2- AngerWhat stage of grief is a bargain made to God in an attempt to reverse or postpone the loss?Stage 3- BargainingWhat stage of grief is the full impact of the loss experienced and is a time of quiet desperation and disengagement from all association with the lost entity?Stage 4- DepressionWhat stage of grief is the final stage in which a feeling of peace is felt?Stage 5- AcceptanceWhat is a loss that is anticipated and the individual begins the work of grieving before an actual loss occurs?Anticipatory GriefWhen do maladaptive grief responses occur?when an individual cannot progress through the stages of grief to achieve resolutionWhat is an intense preoccupation with memories of the lost entity for many years after loss occurred where they are fixed between anger and denial stage of grieving?Prolonged responseWhat is a fixation in the denial stage or grieving process and emotional pain not experienced but anxiety disorders or sleeping/eating disorders are evident?Delayed/Inhibited ResponseWhat is a fixation in the anger stage of grieving where all normal behaviors associated with grieving are exaggerated out of proportion?Distorted ResponseWhat are all the maladaptive responses to grief?Prolonged response, Delayed/inhibited response, and distorted response