To be given a license to practice nursing in a state or province after successfully meeting requirements.
Profession that focuses on the holistic person receiving healthcare services and provides a unique contribution to the prevention of illness and maintenance of health.
Five step systematic method for giving patients care; involves assessing, diagnosing, planning, implementation, and evaluation.
An occupation that meets specific criteria including a well-defined body of specific and unique knowledge, a code of ethics and standards, ongoing research, and autonomy.
Process allowing a nurse to apply for and be endorsed as a registered nurse by another state.
Acceptable, expected level of performance established by authority, custom, or consent. Allow nurses to carry out professional roles, serving as protection for the nurse, the patient and the institution where healthcare is given.
Born in 1820 to a wealthy family, grew up in England, well educated and traveled extensively. Trained as a nurse at 31. The Crimean War gave opportunity for achievement. Challenged prejudices against women, and elevated the status of all nurses. Established training school for nurses, and wrote books on healthcare and nursing education. Elevated the status of nursing to a respected occupation, and improved quality of care. Regarded as founder of modern nursing.
Florence Nightingale's Contributions:
Identifying the person needs of the patient and the role of the nurse in meeting those needs. Establishing standards for hospital management. Establishing a respected occupation for women. Establishing nursing education. Recognizing the two components of nursing: health and illness. Believing the nursing is separate and distinct from medicine. Recognizing that nutrition is important to health. Instituting occupation and recreational therapy for sick people. Stressing the need for continuing education for nurses. Maintaining accurate records, recognized as the beginnings of nursing research.
Volunteered to care for wounds and feed union soldiers during the Civil War; served as the supervisor of nurses for the Army of the James, organizing hospitals and nurses; established the Red Cross in 1882.
Mary Elizabeth Mahoney
Graduated from the New England Hospital for women and children in 1879 as America's First African American Nurse.
A nurse and an abolitionist; active in the underground railroad movement before joining the Union Army during the Civil War.
Isabel Hampton Robb
A leader in nursing and nursing education; organized the nursing school at Johns Hopkins Hospital; initiated policies that included limiting the number of hours in a days work and wrote a textbook to help student learning; the first president of the Nurses Associated Alumnae of the United States and Canada (now American Nurses Association).
Aims of Nursing
To promote health, to prevent illness, to restore health, to facilitate coping with disability or death.
Four Essential Competencies:
Cognitive, Technical, Interpersonal, and ethical/legal skills to provide safe and knowledgeable care.
Think about the nature of things sufficiently to "make sense" of their world and to grasp conceptually what is necessary to achieve valued goals. Offer a scientific rationale for the patients plan of care (sciences include nursing and medical science, as well as chemistry, microbiology, anatomy, physiology, psychology, sociology, and anthropology). Select the nursing interventions that are most likely to yield the desired outcomes. Use critical thinking to solve problems creatively.
Manipulate equipment skillfully to produce a desired outcome or result. Involve everything from manual dexterity and good eye-hand coordination to an ability to troubleshoot when equipment malfunctions, based on an understanding of the technical workings of the equipment. Use technical equipment with sufficient competence and ease to achieve goals with minimal distress to participants involved. Creatively adapt equipment and technical procedures to the needs of individual patients in diverse circumstances.
Establish and maintain caring relationships that facilitate the achievement of values goals while simultaneously affirming the worth of those in the relationship. Use interactions with patients, their significant others, and colleagues to affirm their worth. Elicit the personal strengths and abilities of patients and their significant others to achieve values health goals. Provide the health-care team with knowledge about the patients valued goals and expectations. Work collaboratively with other members of the health-care team as a respected and credible colleague to reach valued goals.
Ethical and Legal Skills
Conduct themselves in a manner consistent with their person moral code and professional role responsibilities. Are trusted to act in ways that advance the interest of patients. Be accountable for their practice to themselves, the patients they serve, the caregiveing team, and society. Act as effective patient advocates. Mediate ethical conflicts among the patients, significant others, and healthcare team, and other interested parties. Practice nursing faithful to the tenets of professional codes of ethics and appropriate standards of practice. Use legal safeguards the reduce the risk of litigation.
Primary Roles of Nurse:
Caregiver, communicator, teacher, counselor, leader, researcher, advocate, and collaborator.
The provision of care to patients that combines both the art and the science of nursing in meeting physical, emotional, intellectual, sociocultural and spiritual needs. As this, the nurse integrates the roles of communicator, teacher counselor, leader, researcher, advocate, and collaborator to promote wellness throughout activities that prevent illness, restore health, and facilitate coping with disability or death. The role of this is the primary role of the nurse.
The use of effective interpersonal and therapeutic communication skills to establish and maintain helping relationships with patients of all ages in a wide variety of healthcare settings.
The use of communication skills to asses, implement, and evaluate individualized teaching plans to meet learning needs of patients and their families.
The use of therapeutic interpersonal communication skills to provide information, make appropriate referrals, and facilitate the patients problem-solving and decision making skills.
The assertive, self-confident practice of nursing when providing care, effecting change, and functioning with groups.
The participation in or conduct of research to increase knowledge in nursing and improve patient care.
The protection of human or legal rights and the securing of care for all patients based on the belief that patients have the right to make informed decisions about their own health and life.
The effective use of skills in organization, communication, and advocacy to facilitate the functions of all members of the healthcare team as they provide patient care.
Settings for Nursing Care:
Hospitals, Ambulatory Surgery Centers, Emergency Helicopter services, Clinics, Homes, Educational Programs, Public Health Offices, Doctors Offices, Industry, Long-Term Care, Mobile Healthcare Units, Schools, Offices, Hospice, Mental health Facilities, State Health Programs, Skilled-Care Facilities, Churches, Prisons.
Factors that affect Health:
Genetic Inheritance, Cognitive Abilities, Educational Level, Race and Ethnicity, Culture, Age and Gender, Developmental Level, Lifestyle, Environment, and Socioeconomic Status.
The ability of patients to obtain, process, and understand the basic information needed to make appropriate decisions about health.
Guidelines of Health Promotion:
To increase quality and years of healthy life, and to eliminate health disparities.
10 Leading Health Indicators:
Physical Activity, Overweight and Obesity, Tobacco Use, Substance Abuse, Responsible Sexual Behavior, Mental Health, Injury and Violence, Environmental Quality, Immunization, Access to Healthcare.
Objectives of Illness-Prevention:
Reduce the risk of illness, promote good health habits, and to maintain optimal functioning.
Examples of Illness-Prevention:
Educational programs in areas such as prenatal care for pregnant women, smoking-cessation programs, and stress-reduction seminars. Community programs and resources that encourage healthy lifestyles, such as aerobic exercise classes, "swimnastics," and physical fitness programs. Literature, television, radio, or Internet information on health diet, regular exercise, and the importance of good health habits. Health assessments in institutions, clinics and community settings that identify areas of strength and risks for illness.
Restoring Healths Focus:
The individual with an illness and range from early detection of a disease to rehabilitation and teaching during recovery.
Examples of Restoring-Heath:
Performing assessments that detect an illness (e.g., blood pressure, blood sugar), referring questions and abnormal findings t other healthcare providers as appropriate, providing direct care of the person who is ill by such measures as giving physical care, administering medications, and carrying out procedures and treatments. Collaborating with other healthcare providers in providing care. Planning, teaching, and carrying out rehab for illnesses such as heart attacks, arthritis, and strokes. Working in mental health and chemical-dependency programs.
International Nursing Organization
ICN - International Council of Nurses, founded in 1899, first international organization of professional women. Share a commitment to maintain high standards of nursing service and education and by promoting ethics, the ICN provides a way for national nursing organizations to work together.
National Nursing Organizations
American Nurses Association (ANA), the National League of Nursing (NLN), and the American Association of College in Nursing (AACN). National Student Nurses' Association (NSNA).
American Nurses Association
ANA - Professional organization for RNs in the US. Founded in 1800's. Primary mission is to be involved in public education, clinical nursing standards, and lobbying of state and federal lawmakers to advance the profession of nursing. Addresses ethics, public policy and the economic and general welfare of nurses.
National League of Nursing
NLN - Organization open to all people interested in nursing, including nurses, nonnurses, and agencies. Established in 1952. Objective is to foster the development and improvement of all nursing services and nursing education. Largest professional testing services in the US, including pre-entrance testing for potential students and achievement testing to student progress. Primary source of research data and nursing education, conducting annual surveys, provides voluntary accreditation for educational programs in nursing.
Association of Colleges in Nursing
AACN - National voice for baccalaureate and higher degree nursing education programs. Focus on establishing quality and education standards, influencing the nursing profession to improve healthcare, and promoting public support of baccalaureate and graduate education, research, and nursing practice.
National Student Nurses Association
NSNA - Established in 1952, with assistance of the ANA and the NLN. National organizatoin for students enrolled in nursing education programs. Through voluntary participation, students practice self-governance, advocate for student and patient rights, and take collective, responsible action of social and political issues.
Common elements of Nurse Practice Acts:
Protect the public by defining the legal scope of nursing practice, excluding untrained or unlicensed people from practicing nursing. Create a state board of nursing or regulatory body having the authority to make and enforce rules and regulations concerning the nursing profession. Define important terms and activities in nursing, including legal requirements and titles for RN's and LPN's. Establish criteria for the education and licensure of nurses.