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Learning Theory - Ch. 1
Terms in this set (26)
According to Aristotle's principle of frequency, the ideas of "chair" and "table" are linked because people see chairs and tables together:
The process by which changes in behavior arise as a result of experience and interaction in the world
If I say "left," it might make one think of the word "right." The connection in one's memory between these concepts is known as:
James was in a bicycle accident in which he was not wearing a helmet. He was not injured, and now, based on this experience, he believes that helmets are unnecessary. James exhibits the views of
Yvonne believes that babies learn words by being rewarded for sounds that sound like those words in response to something they hear. This idea resembles the ideas of
B. F. Skinner
Whose book described a Utopian society in which socially desirable behaviors would be maintained through behaviorist training techniques?
B. F. Skinner
believed in dualism
Which description is an example of a stimulus in René Descartes's reflex arc?
a person being tapped on the shoulder
The principle that memory depends on the formation of linkages ("associations") between pairs of events, sensations, and ideas, such that recalling or experiencing one member of the pair elicits a memory or anticipation of the other.
Nearness in time (temporal contiguity) or space (spatial contiguity).
A philosophical school of thought that holds that all the ideas we have are the result of experience
A philosophical school of thought that holds that the bulk of knowledge is inborn (or native)
A type of learning in which the organism learns to respond to a previously neutral stimulus that has been repeatedly presented along with a biologically significant stimulus; also called Pavlovian conditioning
A graph showing learning performance (the dependent variable, usually plotted along the vertical axis) as a function of training time (the independent variable, usually plotted along the horizontal axis)
The factor that is manipulated in an experiment.
The behavioral consequence of perception of a stimulus
The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
The process of reducing a learned response to a stimulus by ceasing to pair that stimulus with a reward or punishment.
The transfer of past learning to novel events and problems.
The process whereby organisms learn to make responses in order to obtain or avoid important consequences; also called instrumental conditioning
law of effect
The observation, made by Thorndike, that the probability of a particular behavioral response increases or decreases depending on the consequences that have followed that response
The principle that the mind and body exist as separate entities
An automatic pathway from a sensory stimulus to a motor response.
A school of thought that says psychology should restrict itself to the study of observable behaviors (such as lever presses, salivation, and other measurable actions) and not seek to infer unobservable mental processes
Radical Behaviorism (Skinner)
An extreme form of behaviorism championed by B. F. Skinner and holding that consciousness and free will are illusions and that even so-called higher cognitive functions (e.g., human language) are merely complex sets of stimulus-response associations
An internal psychological representation of the spatial layout of the external world.
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