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Terms in this set (148)
Which polysaccharide consists of many long straight chains of glucose with bonds joining the chains?
thymine, guanine, adenine, and cytosine
DNA nucleotides include ______.
Which polysaccharide consists of individual long, twisted, unbranched chains of glucose?
RNA contains uracil; DNA contains thymine.
How does RNA differ from DNA?
Each spring, high school students, college interns, and retirees count and weigh tiny glass eels in streams that feed into the Hudson River. They report their observations to the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Hudson River Estuary Program and the National Estuarine Research Reserve System, who depend on volunteers, to help build a database of information about glass eels. The observations that these volunteers make would best be described as__________.
Saturated fats are ______ at room temperature.
Animals store carbohydrates as ______.
______ is a steroid
It was not a controlled experiment.
A recent commercial advertised for a wristband that claimed to restore health and balance by taking advantage of natural frequencies of your biofield. It even showed several people struggling to balance first without the wristband and then balancing fine with the wristband. For only $20 plus shipping and handling this device can be yours. Why should you be skeptical of the claims made in this ad?
Yes, this conclusion is supported by the data.
Is it reasonable to conclude (i.e., is it supported by the data) that female collared lizards prefer more brightly colored male lizards over dull-colored males?
The scientific method proves things true.
Which of the following statements about the scientific method is false?
All of the above are correct.
Fire can move, grow, reproduce, use energy, consume oxygen, and interact with its environment. Why is it not alive?
Destruction of a protein's shape is called ______.
Nucleic acids are polymers of ______ .
A college campus-including the students, birds, trees, sidewalks, and air-makes up one complete ________.
Life is defined through a set of shared characteristics that all living things display.
How is life defined?
What is another name for starch?
Energy flows through an ecosystem. What is typically the originating source of energy in an ecosystem?
The Scientific Method
Science is discovered through a process known as:
Which of the following large organic molecules includes table sugar?
Hydrophobic interior, hydrophilic exterior
Which combination describes the plasma membrane?
Which of the following is considered the fundamental unit of life?
Unsaturated fats are ______ at room temperature.
Which grouping contains the largest number of individual organisms?
______ are the major lipids of plasma membranes.
Which part of the ecosystem is called a producer?
Organic molecules that end in the suffix "-ase" often function as ________ molecules.
Proteins are diverse molecules that perform a wide variety of functions. Which of the following is not a typical function of proteins?
To be called organic, a molecule must contain ______.
Serves as a basis of comparison with the experimental group.
In a scientific experiment, the control group ______.
Glycerol with three fatty acids attached is referred to as a ______.
"There are 628 squirrels living on campus." I have just described the ________.
A group of interacting individuals of one species
A population consists of ________.
What are the building blocks of proteins?
Proteins are polymers constructed from ______ monomers.
Dead or damaged cells are replaced by ________.
Which cellular structure is unique to prokaryotic organisms?
The phosphate group carries a negative charge, making the head polar.
What makes the "head" of a phospholipid hydrophilic?
They are the only organelles that contain DNA.
Chloroplasts and mitochondria share something with the nucleus that the other organelles do not. What is this shared function or component?
What is the role of carbohydrates in the plasma membrane?
Electron transport chain
During which stage of cellular respiration is the majority of the ATP produced?
Regulates transport of substances between the nucleus and the cytoplasm
What is the role of the nuclear membrane?
A highly disordered form of energy
Heat is classified as ________.
If mitosis makes somatic cells, what does meiosis make?
Through the stomata
How does CO2 enter a plant?
During which phase of the cell cycle are the chromosomes duplicated?
The energy found in animal matter represents a fraction of the energy found in the plant matter eaten by the animal. It would be better to just eat the plant and skip a step.
In a recent newspaper article promoting the eating of seaweed and seaweed products, the argument was made that doing so was a more efficient use of energy than eating animals. Why would eating seaweed be more energy efficient than eating an animal?
It loses a phosphate group and is converted to ADP.
What happens to the ATP molecule after it has been used to do work?
We use energy in many ways. Describe one thing we cannot do to energy.
What leads to an individual having too many or two few chromosomes?
Neither of these.
What type of cells undergo mitosis?
The capacity to do work.
What is the definition of energy?
Which of the following is a waste product of photosynthesis?
It is the final electron acceptor at the end of the electron transport chain.
Why do you need oxygen? (What role does O2 play in aerobic respiration?)
Name the part of the chromosome indicated by the arrow.
How many chromosomes did you inherit from your father?
An energy molecule
What is ATP?
It energizes electrons.
What is the role of light in photosynthesis?
Name the fluid-filled interior of the chloroplast.
How many layers of phospholipids make up the plasma membrane?
Alcohol is a waste product produced by yeast in the presence of sugar and the absence of ________.
Water + Carbon dioxide + Energy = Sugar + Oxygen
Which of the following best describes the chemical equation for photosynthesis?
Which of the following is not located in the nucleus?
By what means does a zygote divide?
Identify the stage (or stages) of cellular respiration that occurs entirely outside of the mitochondria.
Identify the prokaryotic organism.
What passes through the nuclear pores?
Which structure is common to both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
A pencil laying on the ground
Choose the pencil that has the lowest potential energy.
What harvests energy from food molecules to make ATP?
Which grouping immediately follows Order in the classification hierarchy?
Which classification grouping includes the greatest number of species?
What does "transfer RNA" actually transfer?
In the digestive tract of cows
Where would you expect to find methanogens?
Which enzyme is responsible for adding complementary DNA bases to an exposed DNA strand?
All of these can be infected by viruses.
Which of the following do not get infected by viruses?
The slow drifting of sections of the earth's crust, sometimes separating, other times colliding, is known as ________.
survive and reproduce
Individuals with variations that make them best suited to their environment will, on average, be more likely to ________.
A mass of cells that grows out of control but remains at the site of origin
What is a "benign" tumor?
What is the term that defines when the sperm of one species fails to fertilize the egg of a different species?
By what means do the amoebas move?
All pathogenic bacteria are harmful to humans
Which statement is true regarding bacteria?
The origin of the first living organisms is called ________.
Which organisms are called the extremophiles and flourish in extreme conditions?
Some bacteria have a spherical shape, called ________.
Both of these.
What events can lead to offspring having a unique arrangement of their parents' genes?
Interbreeding members of the same species
What defines a population?
They lack a nucleus.
If you looked at unknown cells under a microscope, what could lead you to correctly conclude that they are bacteria cells?
When the mutation occurs in one of the very last codons
When might a frameshift or nonsense mutation not result in a completely defective protein?
What is the monomer of the DNA polymer?
Of those listed below, which category of classification is the most narrow?
Prokaryotes are in different domains.
All prokaryotes are in the domain ________.
According to the base pairing rules of DNA, if the sequence of bases on one strand was AGGCTTA, what would be the sequence of bases on the complementary strand?
What is the original source of variation?
Which was first on the planet, prokaryotes or eukaryotes?
Having highly ordered structure
While most biologists do not consider viruses to be alive, viruses do share some characteristics with living things. Which of the following is a required trait for life that viruses share with living things?
Halophiles are found in which environment?
All of these and more are part of the expanding definition of a gene.
What is a gene?
What is the vector of Lyme disease?
What is the smallest unit that can evolve?
It is not accurate because individuals do not change over time in a way that can be passed on to the next generation.
Why or why is it not accurate to say that individuals evolve?
During which geological era did life first appear on the planet?
There are more helpful types of bacteria on this planet than harmful types.
By what means do bacterial cells typically divide?
What is the strategy used by many prokaryotes for obtaining their energy and their molecular building blocks directly from inorganic chemicals?
Can you inherit physical traits that your parents acquired during their lifetime?
A colleague was about to publish a similar manuscript.
What prompted Darwin to publish his book decades after he began writing it?
Which arthropod subgroup includes the spiders?
One type produces ovules, the other type produces pollen.
Why do pine trees have two different types of cones?
Which one of the following is a defining characteristic of animals but not of plants?
By preventing water loss
How does a plant's cuticle allow it to live on land?
To entice an animal to take the fruit and disperse the seeds
What is the role of the fleshy part of a ripe apple?
Plants are no longer restricted to moist environments
Not all plants have seeds. What advantage do seeds provide a plant?
Which plant group is the largest with the most number of living species?
Cnidarians are named for their cnidocytes, a feature unique to the group. What are cnidocytes?
Which arthropod subgroup includes those with six legs?
The male part of the flower is the ________.
Which was the most recent plant structure to have evolved?
Their gametes are flagellated
Why must mosses and ferns live in moist environments?
Recycling nutrients from dead organisms back into the food chain
What is a major role fungi play in an ecosystem?
None of these
Which arthropod subgroup includes the centipedes?
If you were to observe a flower that lacked petals, fragrance, or nectar, what might you conclude is the pollinator?
Sugars could not be transported from leaves to roots.
If the phloem in a tree trunk were to become blocked, how would this affect the plant?
The pollen tube grows from the ________ to the ________, where it eventually fertilizes the egg.
None of these are part of a plant's vascular system.
Which is part of the vascular system of plants?
Most of our food comes from __________.
Any plane of symmetry passing through the center of the organism splits it into equal halves.
What defines radial symmetry?
sponges, cnidarians, flatworms, annelids, mollusks, roundworms, arthropods, echinoderms, and chordates
Using clues from the text boxes and pictures in this figure, fill in the names of each of the nine major animal phyla from top to bottom.
Fungi evolved first, plants evolved second but not from fungi.
What is the evolutionary history between fungi and plants?
No, they are all eukaryotes
Are all fungi prokaryotes?
There was a rapid diversification of animal forms.
What happened during the Cambrian explosion?
Of all the animal phyla, __________ have the simplest anatomy.
The echinoderms are most closely related to the ________.
All animals are multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes.
Fungi are made of bundles of threadlike ________.
bryophytes, seedless vascular plants, gymnosperms, angiosperms
Which of the following represents the order in which the four major groups of plants evolved, from the most ancient to the most recent origin?
Flatworms are most closely related to the ________.
How many of the animal phyla include single-celled animals?
Cephalopods are a type of __________.
What is the most recent common ancestor of fungi and animals?
Echinoderms use seawater instead of blood in their circulatory systems.
dead, hollow cells
The xylem is made from ________.
Fungal cell walls are made from this.
What do gymnosperms and angiosperms have in common?
From the air
How does a plant get the carbon it needs to make glucose?
A mature ovary
What is a fruit?
This phylum is by far the most numerous and diverse of all animal phylum.
They have no vascular system so they cannot transport water over long distances.
While mosses can cover a significant area of land, they are never more than a few centimeters tall. Why do they not grow tall?
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