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Terms in this set (112)
instinctual driftThe tendency for learned behavior to drift toward instinctual behavior over time.Operant extinctionthe weakening and eventual disappearance of a response because it is no longer reinforcedPartial reinforcementreinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcementAging does not diminish a person'sCapacity for retrieving general information Ie semantic memory, crystallized intelligenceWhy is the reminiscence bump observed in older adults atypical?Enhanced memory performance in an otherwise decreasing retention function (seen normally w forgetting over time)Episodic memorythe collection of past personal experiences that occurred at a particular time and place, residence (including emotions/memories)Implicit memoryretention independent of conscious recollection. (Also called procedural memory.)Agent of socializatoinParts of society that are important for socialization, process of learning norms and values in society Eg music, school, family, religion, media Transmitting values and beliefs about acceptable behaviorsCultural transmissionHow culture is learned through gen to gen through various child rearing practices (eg music exposure by parents)Culture laga period of maladjustment when the nonmaterial culture is still struggling to adapt to new material conditionsCulture assimilationthe process by which a person or a group's language and/or culture come to resemble those of another groupculture shockthe disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their taken-for-granted assumptions about lifeIncentive stimulusthrough an external factors, you can cause motivation in a person's behavior.Sensory stimulusan event/object that is received by senses and elicits a responseDistal stimulusIn perception, it is the actual object or event out there in the world, as opposed to its perceived image.Gestalt PsychologyWays in which people's perceptual experience is organized result from how human brains are organized.Context effectsForm of top-down processing that does not result from organizational processes explained by Gestalt Principles Errors that occur in these cases would be caused by the effects of the context on the processing of stimuli Context in which stimuli are presented and processes of perceptual organization contribute to how people perceive those stimuli and the context can establish the way in which stimuli are organizedPsychophysical testingdirectly assess our perception of stimuli in relation to their true physical properties Shows how perceptual illusions impact our judgements of the nature of stimuliPartial report techniqueflashes images to allow investigators to measure the capacity of sensory memory without disrupting its rapidly decaying contentsoperational span testingA task in which subjects are asked to perform a simple mathematical verification (e.g., 4/2 +1 = 3) and then read a word, with a recall test following some number of those verify/read pairs. The maximum number of words that can be recalled is the "operation span".Spacing effectthe tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practiceFalse memorya distorted or fabricated recollection of something that did not actually occur with CONFIDANCEAutobiographical memorya special form of episodic memory, consisting of a person's recollections of his or her life experiencesRecovered memorya memory from a real event that was encoded, stored, but not retrieved for a long period of time until some later event brings it suddenly to consciousnessIn operant conditioning studies, the subject's motivational state is most typically operationally defined byDepriving the subject of some desirable stimulus item for a period of timeLife course approachCalls attention to developmental processes and other experiences across a person's life Earlier life exposures can influence later disease riskSource amnesiaattributing to the wrong source an event that we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imaginedSemantic memorya network of associated facts and concepts that make up our general knowledge of the worldProactive interferencethe disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new informationStatistical adjustmnetControlling for variables that could affect the relationship between the independent variable and dependent variableSensitive periodAKA critical period ID pt in early development that can have significant influence eon physiological/behavioral functioning in later life a point in development when organisms are particularly susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli in their environments, but the absence of those stimuli does not always produce irreversible consequences Link between early development and physiological/behavioral changes that increase risksIncentive theory of motivationhow factors outside the individual, including community values and other aspects of culture, can motivate behaviorWhat motivational factors could be found within the individualHumanistic, psychoanalytic, and Drive theoryHumanistic theoryAn explanation of behavior that emphasizes the entirety of life rather than individual components of behavior and focuses on human dignity, individual choice, and self-worthSocial epidemiologycontribution of social and cultural factors to disease patterns in populations Sub field of epidemiology, useful to supplement biomedical approachExchange rational choiceAn individual's acts = balance of costs and benefits to maximize the individual's advantage Exchange theory > addresses decision making via cost-benefit analysisIncentive theoryIndividuals are motivated to engage in behaviors that produce rewards/incentives , similar to exchange TheorySymbolic interactionisma micro-level theory in which shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions form the basic motivations behind people's actions How shared meaning is established among individuals or small groups Predicated on interaction and interpretation > Negative/positive label to which participants are interpreted and responded Eg. Clinical encounters with patient-provider communication through study of rapport, empathy, disagreements, and interpretation of meaning amongst social actorsSocial constructionisma sociological theory that argues that people actively shape their reality through social interaction; it is therefore something that is constructed, not inherent; it looks to uncover the ways in which individuals and groups participate in the construction of their perceived social realityCultural capitalknowledge, skills, education, and similar characteristics that are used to make social distinctions and that are associated with differences in social statusSocial capitalthe networks of relationships among people who live and work in a particular society, enabling that society to function effectively.Hidden curriculumthe informal and unofficial aspects of culture that children are taught in schoolAscribed statusA social position assigned to a person by society without regard for the person's unique talents or characteristics.Cognitive dissonanceDiscrepancy among attitudes or an inconsistency between an attitude and a behavior People tend to change their behavior to change their attitudes to match their behaviors, rather than change their behavior Eg. work for council member that you don't agree with, but will adapt their attitudes to be more in line with the council memberSocial cognitive theoryAKA social learning theory Behaviors are learned through observing others and modeling their actionsIntersectionalityhow identity categories (age, gender, sexual orientation) intersect in systems of social stratificationLooking glass selfSelf-concept is influenced by how we perceive others are viewing us Eg person acquires stigmatized illness is likely to internalize stigmatization directed against him/herPopulation pyramidsA bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex distribution of a population Inverse pyramid shape represented in the figure w/ larger age group being larger than the younger age group, overall size of the population to decrease over timeDemographic transition theoryaddresses changes in the birth rate and the death rate that are associated with economic development (specifically, related to industrialization). The typical pattern begins with a drop in the death rate, leading to population growth, followed by a drop in the birth rate, leading to population stabilization.fMRIimaging technique that measures brain activity by detecting associated changes in blood flowPET scana visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given taskWhen to use evidence to support a study vs explain if there is a +/- correlation in a studyEvidence > When the study is an experimental study, there is an indep and dep variable that can produce results (Make sure through manipulated variables and see the changes in the dep to determine if it is experimental) Correlation> when the study is an observational study, can only yield correlation dataStage 2 sleepsleep spindles and K complexes, theta wavesStage 1 sleepThe state of transition between wakefulness and sleep, characterized by relatively rapid, low-amplitude brain waves.Stage 3 sleepthird stage of sleep; deep sleep characterized by low frequency, high amplitude delta wavesPiaget's TheoryStates that children actively construct their understanding of the world and go through four stages of cognitive development Sensorimoter > Birth -2 yo > object permanence Preoperational > 2 -7 yo > Symbolic thought Concrete operational > 7-11 yo > operational thought Formal Operational > Adolescence-adulthood > Abstract conceptsWhat is a primary structure of the reward systemNucleus accumbens, amygdala, and hypothalamusIs cerebellum apart of the primary structure of the reward system?NOEvolutionary perspectivehow the natural selection of traits has promoted the survival of genes Eg. Humans developed preference for high caloric foods bc they are a good source of fuel in the form of fat. Fat can sustain body through periods of time when food was scarce (common throughout evolution)Universally expressed emotionFear, anger, surprise, happiness, disgust and sadness NOT PAINStranger anxietythe fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of ageParallel processingthe processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving.Interpositionmonocular visual cue in which two objects are in the same line of vision and one patially conceals the other, indicating that the first object concealed is further awayAccommodationthe process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retinaPlace theoryone is able to hear different pitches because different sound waves trigger activity at different places along the cochlea's basilar membrane (doesn't involve visual system)When are action potential generated in postsynaptic neuronsWhen depolarization stimulus exceeds thresholdsFoveathe central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones clusterPeriphery of retinacontains a high density of rods which are more photosensitive and can detect dim lightReliabiltyProduces stable and consistent resultsG TheoryThere is ONE KIND of overall intelligence, not skill-specific types If Positive correlation, there is a common base/factor (General intelligence) for things measured (sp categories of intelligence)CounterbalancingA method of controlling for order effects in a repeated measure design by either including all orders of treatment or by randomly determining the order for each subject, which the presenting stimuli might have on the dependent variableNegative primingan implicit memory effect in which prior exposure to a stimulus unfavorably influences the response to the same stimulusNeurolepticclass of psychotropic drugs used to treat psychosis, particularly schizophrenia Effective in treating positive symptoms Side effects: Cognitive dulling, exacerbates negative symptomsFluid intelligenceour ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood Solve problems using deductive and inductive reasoning Key to cognitive functioninductive reasoningA type of logic in which generalizations are based on a large number of specific observations.Deductive reasoningreasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that principle to a specific case (The sun rises every morning; therefore, the sun will rise on Tuesday morning.)What are schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease characterized byCognitive dysfunction particularly in tasks of verbal fluency and negative primingWhat are plausible criticism of the use of self-reports to determine relationship?Potential for poor reliability Results aren't easily compared w those from other measures Vulnerable to subject interpretationGeneral adaptation syndomeSelye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three phases—alarm, resistance, exhaustion. Individual enters stage of exhaustion only after individual has encountered stressor for prolonged periods of time.Activation synthesis modelthe theory that dreams are produced when the brain attempts to make sense of random neural activity that occurs during sleeplong-term potentiation (LTP)an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.Unidirectional relationshipsomething is the direct cause of something else A> BReciprocal relationshipEg dependent stressors not only influence depression, can themselves be influenced by depressionWhat can the brain automatically visually process?Parallel processing Information about space/time/frequency of eventsThe brain needs conscious effort to processNovel informationsignal detection theoryDetection of a stimulus is not only dependent on its strength but also the psychological state of the individualPositive associationDose effectiveness is associated with stimulus and environment, without those, dose will not be as effectiveImages projected to a visual field are represented in the ___ hemisphere of the brainoppositeIn a severed corpus callosum, saying "ball" after a researcher asks, "what do you see?"The word ball is projected to the right visual field while room is projected to the left visual field If ball is projected to the right visual field, word will be represented in left hemisphere where it can be verbalized by left-sided language centersBiographical sketchstudy environmental influences of behavior Helps determine if a behavior is being modeled to opposed to already learnedCross sectional datadata collected at the same or approximately the same point in timeSupport seekingAdaptive coping response with stressful situationStatus-Seekingis a motivation to obtain products that will let others know that you have "made it"Formal and informal Sanctionsrewards and punishments to reinforce organizations vs unwritten, personal relations (avoidance/gossip)Impression managementAddresses how individuals actively manifest their sense of self in social interactions , for example through self -efficacy and confidence manifest via personal interactions.Constructionistdescribes gender as dynamic, fluid, and subject to the processes of meaning-making and collective definition buildingMead's Me component of selfSocialized and conforming aspect of SelfMead's I component of selfSpontaneous, less socialized component of the SelfIntragenerational mobilitymovement up or down a social stratification hierarchy within the course of a personal careerVerbal social mobilityIndividual experienced downward/vertical social mobility after moving from higher paid job to lower.Horizontal Social mobilityChanging jobs at the same class levelMcDonaldizationSocial interactions Include efficiency, calculate lite,uniformity, and tech control