25 terms

APES CH 5 VOCAB

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Ecosystem diversity
the variety of ecosystems within a given region
Species diversity
variety of a given ecosystem
Genetic diversity
variety of genes in a given species
Species Richness
number of species in a given area [ex. pond, canopy of a tree, plot of grassland]
Species Evenness
the relative proportion of different species in a given area
Evolution
change in the genetic composition of a population over time
Microevolution
evolution occurring below the species level
Macroevolution
evolution that gives rise to new species, genera, families, classes or phyla
Mutation
a random change in the genetic code produced by a mistake in the copying process
Recombination
the genetic process by which one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome during the reproductive cell division
Artifical selection
humans selecting which individuals breed - with a preconceived set of traits in mind
Natural selection
environment determines which individuals can survive and reproduce
Fitness
an individual's ability to survive and reproduce
Geographic isolation
physical separation of a group of individuals from others
Reproductive isolation
the result of two population within a species evolving separately so they can no longer interbreed and produce viable offspring
Allopatric speciation
process of speciation that occurs with geographic isolation
Sympatric speciation
the evolution of ones species into two, without geographic isolation
Genetic engineering
copying genes from a species with some desirable trait
Genetically Modified Organism
an organism produced by copying genes from a species with a desirable rate and inserting them into another species
Range of tolerance
the limits to the abiotic conditions that a species can tolerate
Fundamental niche
the suite of ideal environmental conditions for a species
Realized niche
the range of abiotic and biotic conditions under which a species actually lives
Distribution
areas of the world in which a species lives
Niche generalist
a species that can live under a wide range of abiotic or biotic conditions
Niche specialist
A species that is specialized to live in a specific habitat
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