42 terms

Biology

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Cellular respiration
the process that releases energy from food in the presence of oxygen
Cellular respiration captures the energy from food in three main stages:
• glycolysis
• the Krebs cycle
• the electron transport chain
Does require oxygen
Krebs cycle, electron transport chain
Doesn't require oxygen
Glycolysis
Aerobic
pathways are processes that require oxygen
Anaerobic
pathways are processes that occur without oxygen.
Photosynthesis removes (blank) from the atmosphere, and cellular respiration puts it back
Carbon Dioxide
Photosynthesis releases (blank) oxygen into the atmosphere, cellular respiration uses it to release energy from food
Oxygen
A calorie is a unit of
Energy
The Calorie used on food labels is equal to
1000 calories
A Calorie is also referred to as a
Kilocalorie
Cells use the energy stored in chemical bonds of foods to produce compounds that
directly power the cell's activities, such as
ATP
The equation that summarizes cellular respiration, using chemical formulas, is
6O2+C6H12O6-->6CO2+6H2O+Energy
If cellular respiration took place in just one step, most of the (blank) would be lost
in the form of light and (blank)
Energy and Heat
Cellular respiration begins with a pathway called (blank) which takes place
in the (blank)
Glycolysis and Cytoplasm
At the end of glycolysis, about (blank) percent of the chemical energy is locked
in the bonds of the (blank) molecule
90, Pryuvic acid
Cellular respiration continues in the (blank) of the cell with the(blank) and electron transport chain
Mitochondria, Krebs Cycle
The pathways of cellular respiration that require oxygen are said to be
Aerobic
Pathways that do not require oxygen are said to be
Anaerobic
The energy flow in photosynthesis and cellular respiration occurs in the
(blank) direction
Opposite
Photosynthesis (blank) energy in Earth's "savings account" for living
organisms.
Deposits
Cellular respiration removes (blank) from the air.
Oxygen
(Blank)takes place in nearly all life.
Cellular respiration
Why is it an investment for the cell to use two ATP at the beginning of glycolysis?
It gives the cell a net gain of 2 ATP molecules for each molecule of glucose that enters glycolysis.
What are two advantages of glycolysis?
1. The process is so fast that cells can produce thousands of ATP molecules in just a few milliseconds
2. It does not require oxygen, the process can quickly supply chemical energy to cells when oxygen is not available
The pyruvic acid produced in glycolysis enters the (blank) if
oxygen is present in a cell.
Mitochondria
In the matrix, pyruvic acid is converted to (blank) acid before the Krebs cycle begins.
Acetic
The compound that joins with a 4-carbon molecule in the Krebs
cycle is called (blank)
Acetyl-CoA
(Blank)is the only product of the Krebs cycle that is not
re-used or used in other stages of cellular respiration.
Carbondioxide
In eukaryotes, the electron transport chain is composed of a series of electron carriers
located in the (Blank) of the mitochondrion.
Inner membrane
In prokaryotes, the electron transport chain is in the
Cell membrane
(Blank)serves as the final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain.
Oxygen
(Blank & Blank)pass high-energy electrons to the electron
transport chain.
NADH & FADH2
The transfer of high-energy electrons down the electron transport chain causes (Blank)to be transported across the mitochondrial membrane.
Hydrogen ions
ATP synthases produce the force needed to add one (Blank)to each ADP
molecule by spinning when hydrogen ions flow through them.
Phosphate group
How many ATP molecules per glucose molecule does a cell gain from each of the three
stages of cellular respiration?
Glycolysis: 2
Krebs Cycle: 2
Electron Transport: 32
provides the pyruvic acid molecules used in fermentation.
Glycolysis
Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue by providing the (blank)needed to accept high-energy electrons.
NAD+
Fermentation is a (blank) process
Anaerobic
Fermentation occurs in the mitochondria of cells
False
What fermentation gives off carbon dioxide and is used in making
bread.
Alcoholic
Most organisms perform fermentation using a chemical reaction that
converts pyruvic acid to
Lactic acid