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AP - Upper Respiratory Test
Terms in this set (60)
What is the nasal septum?
It divides the nasal cavity into the right and left halves
What are the hair like structures in the upper respiratory tract that filter and move dust and mucous?
How many sets of paranasal sinuses are there in an adult? Name them.
There are 4 sets
Ethmoid, sphenoid, frontal, maxillary
What is the function of the nasal turbinates (conchae)?
It contains 3 nasal conchae (superior, middle, inferior)
They are scroll-shaped bones that warm and filter air
What are the boundaries for the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx?
Nasopharynx is located behind the nose and extends to the soft palate
Oropharynx is located behind the mouth
Laryngopharynx extends from hyoid bone to larynx
What are the names of the 3 sets of tonsils?
Pharyngeal, palatine, lingual
Which set of tonsils are also known as the adenoids?
What part of the upper respiratory system houses the vocal cords?
What cartilage forms the anterior portion of the larynx and is shaped like a shield?
What is the fxn of the epiglottis and what is it made of?
Flap-like structure that prevents aspiration or substances into the trachea
What cartilage of the larynx is known as the Adam's apple?
What is the carina? At what level is it located at?
Where the trachea bifurcated into the primary bronchi
Located at T5
Which is more anterior: trachea or esophagus?
How long is the trachea?
11 cm long
What is the trachea made of?
Smooth muscle imbedded with cartilaginous c-rings
What are the trachea and primary bronchi lined with?
What parts of the respiratory system has incomplete cartilage rings?
Which primary bronchus is more vertical?
Right primary bronchus
The lobes of the lung are served by what part of the bronchial tree?
The secondary bronchi
What are the apices of the lungs?
Upper pointed portion of the lung
Groove (indentation) located on the medial aspect of each lung.
Define visceral pleura.
Covers the outer surface of each lung
Define parietal pleura.
Lines thoracic cavity, adheres to internal surface of ribs, partitions off mediastinum
Where is the pleura fluid located? What is its function?
Lines thoracic cavity.
Define mediastinum and what structures are located in it.
Sits between the lungs.
Heart, trachea, esophagus, thymus gland, great vessels
How many lobes does the right lung have? The left lung?
Right has 3
Left has 2
What fissure separates the lobes of the left lung? What fissures separate the lobes of the right lung?
Left lung - oblique fissure
Right lung - horizontal fissure
What is the functional unit of the lung?
In what area of the lung is fluid commonly found on an upright chest?
Inferior portion of the lung
Describe the structure and function of the alveoli.
Primary gas exchange structures of the respiratory tract.
Thin-walled structures that lie in contact with blood capillaries.
Define external inspiration.
The exchange of O2 and CO2 out of the lungs
Define internal inspiration.
The exchange of O2 and CO2 in the lungs.
What are the two muscles that are used in pulmonary ventilation (breathing)?
Diaphragm, external intercostal muscle
When does the diaphragm reach its lowest point?
When there is a full inhale
What happens to the volume of the chest when the diaphragm lowers?
Increase in volume
Explain how inspiration occurs b/c of a difference in air pressures.
Air pressure inside lungs must be lower than atmospheric pressure for air to enter the lungs.
Contraction of muscles such as diaphragm and intercostal occurs and there is a decrease in the alveolar (intrapulmonary) pressure 1-3 mm Hg.
What is lung compliance?
The ability of the lungs and thorax to stretch
List factors that affect lung complieance.
Injury (ex: broken ribs)
Disease (ex: COPD, Asthma, Bronchitis)
What is an infiltrate?
Diffuse area of fluid that collects in the lung
Air enters the pleural space causing a partial or complete collapse of the lung
Explain how pressure differences cause a lung to collapse.
Pressure is greater in pleural space than alveolar space
What type of chest x-ray would best diagnose a pneumothorax?
Upright, expiration chest x-ray
What is the treatment for a larger pneumothorax?
What type of body habitus is more prone to a spontaneous pneumothorax?
Tall & thin, young male
Describe how carbon monoxide interacts with RBC.
CO binds with hemoglobin, 200x more strongly than oxygne
What is the treatment for carbon monoxide poisoning?
Breathing 100% pure oxygen
Severe cases - hyperbaric oxygen chamber
What is atelectasis?
Collapse of a lung (part or all)
What is the most common cause of atelectasis? Give some examples.
Ex: mucous plug, neoplasm, aneurysm, enlarged lymph node, inadequate ventilation, foreign body
Illness caused by physician or medication
What is pneumonia?
Infection of lung parenchyma
What is hospital-acquired pneumonia?
Pneumonia that is acquired during a hospital stay
What is a community-acquired pneumonia?
Acquired outside of a medical or institutional setting
What is aspiration pneumonia?
Type of pneumonia that occurs when esophageal low gastric contents get into lungs
What is a pulmonary embolism?
People who are inactive or immobile for long periods of time
What are the best exams to diagnose a pulmonary embolism?
Chest x-ray, CT of the chest
How does COVID-19 enter the body?
Through contact with virus to mucous membranes, eyes, nose and mouth
What are some factors that affect the severity of COVID-19?
Chronic lung disease, heart disease, blood disease, severe cases can cause/develop COVID pneumonia
What two exams in radiology can help diagnose COVIS-19? How does it appear?
Chest x-ray and CT of the chest
What is ECMO?
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (lung bypass)
Study Natalie's power point for diagram/radiograph material for test.
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