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Ch. 6 S. 4 Is intelligence one or many abilities?
Terms in this set (59)
Found in individuals having a remarkable talent even though they are mentally slow in other domains
What is an example of a remarkable talent of scant syndrome?
the ability to determine the days of the week for any given date
Some psychologists believe that intelligence comprises _____ ____ ____, -, while others believe that intelligence is a ____ __ ____ ____.
one general factor; g; collection of distinct abilities
Those who have been interested in developing tests to measure mental abilities
the field of "mental measurements"
Who is Charles Spearman?
A psychologist best known for his work suggesting that intelligence is a single factor
A general ability, proposed by Spearman, as the main factor underlying all intelligent mental activity
The knowledge a person has acquired, plus the ability to access that knowledge
Much of our general knowledge is stored in ___ _____, a partition of long-term memory.
The ability to see complex relationships and solve problems
According to Sternberg, the ability to cope with the environment' sometimes called "street smarts"
Who cam up with practical intelligence, creative intelligence and analytical intelligence?
What did Raymond Cattell determine?
He determined that general intelligence can be broken down into two relatively independent components he called crystallized and fluid intelligence
Who came up with the terms "crystallized" and "fluid intelligence"?
According to Sternberg, the ability measured by most IQ tests; includes the ability to analyze problems and find correct answers
How is crystallized intelligence measured?
by tests of vocabulary, arithmetic, and general information
What type of intelligences involve algorithms and heuristics?
How is fluid intelligence measured?
By tests of block design and spatial visualization, tests that do not rely on the individual possessing certain "crystallized" background information to solve a problem
What does intelligence include according to cognitive psychologists?
it includes cognitive processes underlying success in many areas of life-not just school and thus is much broader than the psychometric notion of intelligence
Instead of asking "How smart are you?" what does cognitive theories ask?
"How are you smart"?
What do you lack if you seem to have plenty of "book smarts" but is not very successful in life, perhaps because you don't get along with others or deal effectively with unexpected events?
What is practical intelligence sometimes called?
What intelligence is the ability to adapt to your environment, to shape an environment to suit your needs, or to find an environment in which you van thrive?
What is an important component of practical intelligence?
Who came up with naturalistic intelligence, logical-mathematical intelligence, spatial intelligence, linguistic intelligence, musical intelligence, bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, and interpersonal intelligence?
According to Sternberg, the form of intelligence that helps people see new relationships among concepts
What does creative intelligence involve?
insight and creativity
The term for Sternberg's theory of intelligence; so called because it involves the there ("ti-") main forms of intelligence
According to Sternberg, using one's intelligence toward a common good rather than a selfish pursuit
A term used to refer to Gardner's theory, which proposes that there are eight (or more) forms of intelligence
What type of intelligence did Picasso and Einstein used when developing the form of painting called Cubism and to formulate his theory of relatively?
What type of intelligence does a car salesman who convinces a buyer to purchase a defective car demonstrate?
What did Harvard psychologist Howard Gardner argue?
that we have at least eight separate mental abilities, which he calls multiple intelligences
What are the eight types of multiple intelligences?
1. Linguistic intelligence
2. Logical-mathematical intelligence
3. Spatial intelligence
5. Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence
6. Naturalistic intelligence
7. Interpersonal intelligence
8. Intrapersonal intelligence
Often measured on traditional IQ tests by vocabulary test and tests of reading comprehension
Measured on most IQ tests with analogies, math problems, and logic problems
The ability to form and manipulate mental images of objects and to think about their relationships in space
The ability to perform, compose, and appreciate musical patterns, including patters of rhythms and pitches
The ability for controlled movement and coordination, such as that needed by an athlete or a surgeon
The ability to classify living things as members of diverse groups (e.g., dogs, petunias, bacteria) and recognize subtle changes in one's environment
The ability to understand other people's intentions, emotions, motives, and actions, as well as to work effectively with others
The ability to know oneself, to develop a satisfactory sense of identity, and to regulate one's life
What are interpersonal and interpersonal intelligence similar to?
a capacity some psychologists call emotional intelligence
What did Sternberg found in children in rural Kenya?
He found that children with the greatest practical intelligence skills actually scored lower on traditional IQ because good grade can't get you anywhere. The kids with the best minds don't learn academic skill but concentrate instead on practical skills that will get them ahead in life
What does the Buganda people in Uganda associate intelligence with?
slow and thoughtful response
What do the people in Niger (West Africa) see intelligence as?
A combination of social skills and good memory
What do the chines view intelligence as?
Intelligence involves, among other things, extensive knowledge, determination, social responsibility, and ability for imitation
How do the Cree in northern Ontario view intelligence?
"wise, thinks hard, and thinks carefully"
What does the Cree define"lives like aWhite"?
a combination of being "stupid" and having "backwards knowledge. A stupid person does not know the necessary skills for survival and does not learn by respecting and listening to elders
Theory of mind
An awareness that other people's behavior may be influenced by beliefs, desires, and emotions that differ from one's own
What does a poker player use when bluffing, or a child who lies about the raiding cookie?
Theory of mind
observations or behaviors that result primarily from expectations
Who did the study of expectancy bias where it influence student performance?
Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson
Why did the children whom teachers expected to blossom did exactly that in the study of Rosenthal and Jacobson's? It is identified by four factors.
- Teachers unknowingly created a more encouraging climate for the students they expected to "bloom,"
-gave them more differentiated feedback
-gave them more opportunities to demonstrate their knowledge
-also challenged them with more difficult work.
In Carell's theory, the ability to use algorithms and heuristics would be called _____ intelligence.
A friend tells you he has found a way to improve his grades by stopping by his psychology professor's office once a week to ask questions about the reading. In Sternberg's triarchic theory, which kind of intelligence is this?
Name the type of intelligences of Gardner's eight intelligences that is also measured on standard IQ tests.
linguistic and logical-mathematic intelligence (some also assess spatial intelligencE)
Why does a self-fulfilling prophecy come true?
Expectations: we frequently observe what we expect to see, even when our expectations are erroneous. So if we expect someone to be smart, the chances are good that this "prophecy" will fulfill itself
Sternberg, Gardner, and others maintain that there are multiple intelligences. What is the position taken by spearman and others on the opposite side of this argument?
Although they do not deny that different abilities exist, Spearman and others have argued intelligence involves a single general, or g, factor underlying all theses special abilities
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