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an alphabet that contains a separate letter for each individual sound in a language
a basic unit of speech production and perception generally consisting of a segment of greatest acoustic energy (a peak, usually a vowel) and segments of lesser energy (troughs, usually consonants); a unit of speech consisting of an onset and/or a rhyme
word stress/lexical stress
the production of a syllable with increased force or muscular energy, resulting in a syllable that is perceived as being louder, longer in duration, and higher in pitch; also known as word accent
systematic phonemic transcription
phonemic transcription of an individual, used when the rules of the language are known; variant phoneme (i.e., allophone) production is not recorded; also referred to as broad transcription or phonemic transcription
systematic narrow transcription
allophonic transcription of an individual, used when the rules of the language are known; also referred to as narrow transcription or allophonic transcription
a specialized phonetic symbol used in both systematic and impressionistic transcription to represent both allophone production as well as suprasegmental features of speech
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