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terminology used in research

Basic research

research conducted to advance scientific knowledge

Applied research

research designed to solve practical problems


statistical procedure for combining and analyzing data from many studies

Informed consent:

participants agreement to take part in a study after being told what to expect


Informing participants after the research about the purpose of the study, the nature of the anticipated results, and any deceptions used.


carefully controlled scietific procedure that involves manipulation of variables to determine cause and effect

Experimenter bias

occurs when researcher influences research results in the expected direction

Experimental group

group that recieves treatment in an experiment

Control group

group that recieves no treatment in an experiment

Independent Variable

variable that is manipulated to determine it's causal effect on the dependent variable

Dependent variable

variable that is measured; it is affected by (or dependent on) the independent variable

Double blind study

procedure in which both the researcher and the participants are unaware of who is in the expermental or control group.


inactive substance or fake treatment used as a control technique, usually in drug research, or given by a medical professional


believing that one's culture is typical of all cultures; also, viewing one's own ethnic group as central and "correct" and judging others according to this standard

Salmple Bias

occurs when research participants are not representative of the larger population

Random assignment

using chance methods to assign participants to experimental or control conditions, thus minimizing the possibility of biases or pre-existing differences in the group

participant bias

occurs when experimental conditions influence the participants behavior or mental processes

descriptive research

research methods that observe and record behavior and mental processes without producing causal explanations

Naturalisitic observation

observation and recording behavior and mental processes in the participants natural state or habitat


research tenique that questions a large sample of people to asses their behavior and attitudes

Case study

in-depth study of a single research participant

Correlational research

researcher observes or measures (without directly manipulating) two or more naturally occuring variables to find the relationships between them

Biological research

scientific studies of the brain and other parts of the nervous system

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