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Horse external anatomy
Terms in this set (35)
the muzzle includes the upper and lower lip and nostril
There are 4 types of teeth in the horse molars, premolars, canine and incisors. They are numbered starting centrally, and moving posteriorly. This means that the 1st incisors are next to the midline and the first premolars are more towards the front.
The forehead is defined as the area between the eyes
The growth of hair on the head between the ears that falls forward
The poll is the highest point on the horse (except for the ears). Technically, it is a protrusion of the occipital bone, just between or behind the ears. Sometimes the atlanto-occipital joint (the first spinal joint) is called the poll joint.
The cartilaginous tissue that funnels sound into the external meatus.
The crest is the most posterior and superior part of the neck. The spinous processes of the cervical vertebrae do not extend as far as this bump, and so the crest is formed from the nuchal ligament and surrounding muscle tissue.
The withers is the area overlaying the 1-6 thoracic vertebrae and is located between the scapula. The spine of the thoracic vertebrae forms a prominent bony ridge here.
The back is the area between the withers and the loin. It overlays both the lumbar vertebrae and the thoracic vertebrae from 6 onwards.
The is the area between the ending of the ribs and the thigh
The croup is the area between the loin and tail. Anatomically it is the area defined by the pelvis
The dock is the area of muscle and skin that covers the coccygeal vertebrae.
The buttock is the area below the root of the tail and behind the thighs. It is part of the hindquarters.
The tail consists of both the dock and the skirt. The dock is the area of bone and muscle, and the skirt are the long hairs that fall below the dock.
The gaskin is the area between the stifle and the hock. The gaskin encompasses the tibia bone regions and is analogous to the human lower leg.
The hock is the area in the posterior leg that includes a complex set of joints. The bones that exist in the hock are the talus, calcaneus, central tarsal bone. 3rd tarsal bone, 3rd metarsal bone, 4th metatarsal bone and the fused 1st and 2nd tarsal bones.
The stifle is the joint on the hindlimb that is defined by the meeting of the femur above the tibia and fibula below. Although there is a "knee" joint on the horse's forelimb, the stifle joint is analogous to the human knee joint in form and function.
The flank is the area on the sides of the horse between the abdomen and the stifle.
Point of Hip
This is the crest of the ilium where the iliac spine ends
The barrel is the trunk of the horse and is defined as the area over the rib cage.
The heart girth is the circumference of the chest and can be used to estimate horse weight. This is done by using a tape measure from the withers, under the barrel just behind the forelegs and up the other side, ending back at the withers. Then the body length needs to be measured from the point of the shoulder to the point of the rump (in inches). Then apply this formula: heart girth X heart X length, divided by 330, + 50 = weight.
The abdomen is the area between the ribs and the stifle that contains the digestive system.
The elbow is the joint on the forelimb that is defined by the meeting of the humerus above with the radius and ulna below.
The knee is the joints between the cannon, the carpals and the radius in the foreleg. The name knee is misleading, however, because it is not analogus to the human knee, but rather more similar to the human wrist.
The fetlock is the joint where the cannon bone meets the pastern
The pastern is an area of the leg defined as between the fetlock and hoof.
The coronet is ringed band directly above the hoof. It is part of the pastern.
The hoof is a complex structure composed of multiple parts. The outer hoof capsule is composed of cornified tissue that covers and protects the sensitive internal structures. It consists of the wall, sole, frog, and bulb. The coffin bone is the deepest structure in the hoof. Between these two structures is the dermis (often called the lamina). This layer produces the hoof capsule through the process of cornification.
The forearm is the area between the elbow and the knee
The arm is the area on the forelimb that is defined by the location of the humerus bone. This is analogous to the upper arm in a human.
The shoulder is the area overlaying the scapula
The chest is the area on the front part of the body between the shoulders.
The neck is defined as the area overlaying the cervical vertebrae.
The cheek is the area overlaying the zygomatic bone.
The chin groove is the area behind the lower lip and chin. This is the area where the curb chain of a bit is fastened.
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