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Terms in this set (26)
With a rear impact, the trunk is accelerated forward initially resulting in rapid ______ of the lower c spine and ______ of the upper c spine.
Then the head catches up with the neck resulting in overall __________ of the c spine compressing _________ tissues and tensioning __________ tissues.
extension; flexion; extension; posterior; anterior
when whiplash occurs does the musculature add resistance to protect the neck?
no; happens too fast
irregularity of helical ______ of movement is correlated with pain intensity in patients with WAD. If one is disrupted, all others in C spine are also disrupted
what accounts for an increase in cross sectional area of cervical musculature in WAD
those with cervical muscle fat infiltration post WAD have different _______ network activity indicating injury is not purely localized to musculature
patients with WAD have increased _________ outflows altering positive feedback loops and possibly destabilizing homeostasis and contributing to chronic pain states.
_________ _________ is one explanation as to why pain may still be presence in the absence of tissue damage. This occurs similarly in WAD and fibromyalgia
sensory disturbances from whiplash injury are associated with persistent ________
one option for patients with WAD that is outside the scope of physical therapy is ________ ________ _________
cognitive behavioral therapy
WAD often affects the _________ evident in a decrease in smooth pursuit movement tests and increased cervico-ocular reflex
patients with WAD have shown higher interstitial _________ and _________ in trapezius strongly correlated to pain levels
________ and _________ are peptides promoting inflammation that are elevated in patients with WAD
__________ deficits including cervical joint position sense and standing balance, often result with WAD, especially those with dizziness
patients with WAD have __________ deep cervical flexor activity with compensatory increase in ________ flexors
what is the most important influencing factor on QOL and health among 275 patients with chronic WAD pain
__________ and fear of ___________ were found to be predictors of disability and depression
expectations of recovery correlated strongly to __________ outcomes in patients with WAD
No postsecondary ed, female gender; age >35, history of prior neck pain, baseline neck pain intensity >55/100, neck disability index >14.5/50, cold hyperalgesia, catastrophizing; hyperarousal symptoms, WAD grade 2 or 3, no seat belt at time of MVA, neck pain/HA/LBP at inception
these are all __________ of WAD persistent problems
WAD can affect the pain pressure threshold ________ from the injury
management of acute WAD focuses on advice encouraging __________ to usual activity and __________-
treatment of WAD should include retraining ___________ and ___________ _________ of the craniocervical region to prevent/treat sensorimotor incongruence
proprioception; movement control
neck ________ muscle strengthening is an important focus for treating WAD
are women or men with chronic whiplash associated disorder more likely to improve?
>60% of individuals with WAD also have ___________ pain
increased muscular activity (SCM, scalenes, etc) results in ___________ joint reaction forces and disc pressures
teaching individuals to manage _________ (may not be in the scope of PT) in addition to multi-modal interventions can result in clinically important progress
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