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Horse Internal Anatomy
Terms in this set (11)
the air enters the lungs throug the bronchial tubes, which branch into tiny bronchioles. At the ends of these bronchioles, the alveoli are the tiny structures that allow oxygen to enter the blood and carbon dioxide to leave the blood. Feeding the capillaries surrounding the alveoli is the pulmonary arteriole, which is bringing de-oxygenated blood from the heart.
The various functions of the spleen include filtration of the blood, the destruction of old red blood cells and production of new blood cells, and the contribution to immune responses by producing and housing lymphocytes, which produce antibodies and assist in removing microbes and other debris from the blood supply.
The small colon of the horse is 10 to 12 feet long and lies between the large colon and the rectum. This part of the colon absorbs water. It is in the small colon where fecal balls are formed.
The large colon of the horse is between 10 and 12 feet long. The colon absorbs carbohydrates from cellulose which has been broken down in the cecum. Horses have both a large and small colon, and a small intestine. The small intestine is 50-70 feet in length and is located between the stomach and colon.
The urinary system consists of the kidneys, the ureters, the bladder and urethra. Within the kidney, the renal cortex is the outer portion of the kidney just beneath the fibrous capsule, and contains the main bodies of the nephrons, which are the functional tissue that filter the blood.
In the stallion, the penis provides the means of penetration of the female reproductive system for semen deposition and is composed primarily of erectile tissue. The glans penis is the sensitive end of the penis that enlarges during excitation and copulation.
The function of the stomach is to break down the food into chyme. The food enters the stomach through the esophagus at the cardiac opening.
The liver filters the blood, removing unhealthy and toxic substances, and converts essential substances such as glucose to glycogen for usage according to the horse's needs. It also produces bile, an alkaline fluid that aids in the absorption of fats. The horse has no gall bladder and the free flow of bile keeps the small intestinal system alkaline for healthy digestive absorption.
The function of the heart is to pump blood throughout the body. Besides carrying nutrients, the blood also delivers oxygen through the body.
The esophagus is a muscular tube that originates in the back of the mouth and terminates at the stomach. In the adult full sized horse, the esophagus is approximately 48 inches long and serves as a conduit for water, feed, and salivary secretions to the stomach.
The trachea is the tube that carries air from the oral cavity to the lungs. The trachea consists of many C shaped cartilaginous bands that are called tracheal rings. The larynx is at the most cranial part of the trachea and is formed from 5 pieces of cartilage.
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