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Normal volume of urine excreted in a 24 hour period

1.0-1.8 liters

What is responsible for the normal yellow color of urine


How does a urinary tract infection influence urine pH


How does starvation influence urine pH


Presence of erythrocytes in urine


Presence of hemoglobin in the urine


Presence of glucose in the urine


Presence of albumin in the urine


Presence of key tone bodies in urine


Presence of pus in urine


The three major nitrogenous wastes in the urine

Urea, uric acid, and creatinine

Finding abnormal constituents in the urine that may indicate pathology


Which has a greater specific gravity, 1mL of urine or 1mL of distilled water

Urine, it contained dissolved solutes which add density

Three constituents that may be present in a urinary tract infection

White blood cells, red blood cells, and casts

What are renal calculi and what conditions favor their formation

Kidney stones. Urinary retention, urinary tract infection and alkaline urine

Substances that form crystals precipitate from a solution

Unorganized sediments

Cellular elements (WBC and RBC)

Organized sediments

Site of filtration formation


Primary site of tubular reabsorption

Proximal convoluted tubule

Structure that conveys the processed filtrate to the renal pelvis

Collecting duct

Blood supply that directly receives substances from the tubular cells

Pertibular capillaries

It's inner visceral membrane forms part of the filtration membrane

Globular capsule

the mechanisim that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability properties of the

loop on henle

urine passes through the

pelvis of the kidney to the ureter to the bladder to the urethra

not associated with the renal corpuscle

vasa recta

an increase in the permeablility of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to an

increase in the production of ADH

The urinary bladder is composed of

transitional epithelium

the kidneys are stimulated to produced renin

by a decrease in blood pressure

helps maintain homeostasis by controlling the composition, volume and pressure of blood. Regulates blood glucose levels and produces hormones, and maintains blood osmolarity

functions of the urinary system

gland that sits atop the kidney


the artery that lies on the boundry between the cortex and medulla of the kidney


the glomerulus differs from the other capillaries in the body in that it

is drained by efferent arteriole

the decending limb of the loop of Henle

contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla

The ureters are capable of peristalsis like that of the

gastrointestinal tract

the fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because it

stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position

the renal corpuscle is made up of

Bowman's capsule and glomerulus

the functional and structural unit of the kidney is the


the juxtaglomerular apparatus is responsible for

regulating the rate of filtrate formation and controlling systemic blood pressure

the cheif force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is

glomerular hydrostatic pressure

which of the following statements describes the histology of the ureters

trilayered, mucosa, muscularis and adventitia

which of the following acts as a trigger for the initiation of micturition (voiding)

the stretching of the bladder wall.

The filtration membrane includes

glomerular endothelium, podocytes and a basement membrane

the mechanisim of water reabsorption by the renal tubles is


most electrolyte reabsorption by the renal tubules is

hormonally controlled in distal tubule segments

the macula densa cells respond to

changes in solute content of the filtrate

not reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule


the fuid in clomerular (Boman's) capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a ignificant amount of

plasma protein

alcohol acts as a diuretic because

it inhibits the release of ADH

the function of angiotensin II is to

constrict arteriols and increase blood pressure

a disease caused by inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone by the pituitary gland with symptoms of polyuria is

diabetes insipidus

an important characteristic of urine is it's specific gravity or density which is


sequence from drop of urine to its elimination from the body

nephron, collecting duct, minor calyx, major calyx, ureter, urethra

the parietal layer of the glomerular capsule is

simple wquamous epithelium

what would happen if the capsular hydrostatic pressure were increased above normal

net filtration would decrease

not a part of the juxtaglomerular appartatus

podocyte cells

tubular reabsorption

by active mechanisims usually involves movement against an electrical and or chemical gradient

reabsorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by

secondary active transport

one of the function of the loop of Henle

form a large volume of very dilute urine or a small volume of very concentrated urine

fetal kidneys do not have to work very hard because

the placenta allows the mother's urinary system to clear the waste from the fetal blood.

kidney function in older adults

decreases due to kidney atrophy

factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus is the

glomerular hydrostatic pressure

if the Tm for a particular amino acid is 120mg/100ml and the concentration of the acid in the blood is 230mg/100ml, the amino acid will

appear in the urine

if one says that the clearance value of glucose is zero, what does that mean?

normally all of the glucose is reabsorbed

excretion of dilute urine requires

impermeability of the collecting tuble to water

methods by which renal tubules can raise blood pH

secreting hydrogen ions into the filtrate, reabsorbing filtered bicarbonate ions and by producing new bicarbonate ions

in the ascending limb of the loop on Henle, the

thick segment moves ions out into interstitial spaces for reabsorption

kidneys develop from

urogenital ridges

reabsorption of water is

hormonally controlled

function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus

help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys

salt level monitoring part of the nephron

macula densa

hormone responsible for facultative water reabsorption


most important hormone regulator of electrollyte reabsorption and secretion

angiotensin II and aldosterone

which cells of the kidney are chemoreceptors that resond to changes in solute content of the filtrate

macula densa cells

the capillary bed that surrounds the descending and ascending loop of Henle of juxtamedulllary nephrons is called the

vasta recta

urine crystals in the renal pelvis are called

renal calculi

the area between the ureters and urethra is called the

trigone in a bladder

the myogenic mechanism is

the general tendency of vascular smooth muscle to contract when stretched.

the presence of pus in the urine is called


sodium linked water flow across a membrane is called

obligatory water reabsorption

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