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79 terms

Urinary system

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Normal volume of urine excreted in a 24 hour period
1.0-1.8 liters
What is responsible for the normal yellow color of urine
Urochrome
How does a urinary tract infection influence urine pH
Alkaline
How does starvation influence urine pH
Acid
Presence of erythrocytes in urine
Hematuria
Presence of hemoglobin in the urine
Hemogloinuria
Presence of glucose in the urine
Glycosuria
Presence of albumin in the urine
Albuminuria
Presence of key tone bodies in urine
Ketonuria
Presence of pus in urine
Pyuria
The three major nitrogenous wastes in the urine
Urea, uric acid, and creatinine
Finding abnormal constituents in the urine that may indicate pathology
Urinalysis
Which has a greater specific gravity, 1mL of urine or 1mL of distilled water
Urine, it contained dissolved solutes which add density
Three constituents that may be present in a urinary tract infection
White blood cells, red blood cells, and casts
What are renal calculi and what conditions favor their formation
Kidney stones. Urinary retention, urinary tract infection and alkaline urine
Substances that form crystals precipitate from a solution
Unorganized sediments
Cellular elements (WBC and RBC)
Organized sediments
Site of filtration formation
Glomerulus
Primary site of tubular reabsorption
Proximal convoluted tubule
Structure that conveys the processed filtrate to the renal pelvis
Collecting duct
Blood supply that directly receives substances from the tubular cells
Pertibular capillaries
It's inner visceral membrane forms part of the filtration membrane
Globular capsule
the mechanisim that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability properties of the
loop on henle
urine passes through the
pelvis of the kidney to the ureter to the bladder to the urethra
not associated with the renal corpuscle
vasa recta
an increase in the permeablility of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to an
increase in the production of ADH
The urinary bladder is composed of
transitional epithelium
the kidneys are stimulated to produced renin
by a decrease in blood pressure
helps maintain homeostasis by controlling the composition, volume and pressure of blood. Regulates blood glucose levels and produces hormones, and maintains blood osmolarity
functions of the urinary system
gland that sits atop the kidney
adrenal
the artery that lies on the boundry between the cortex and medulla of the kidney
arcuate
the glomerulus differs from the other capillaries in the body in that it
is drained by efferent arteriole
the decending limb of the loop of Henle
contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla
The ureters are capable of peristalsis like that of the
gastrointestinal tract
the fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because it
stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position
the renal corpuscle is made up of
Bowman's capsule and glomerulus
the functional and structural unit of the kidney is the
nephron
the juxtaglomerular apparatus is responsible for
regulating the rate of filtrate formation and controlling systemic blood pressure
the cheif force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is
glomerular hydrostatic pressure
which of the following statements describes the histology of the ureters
trilayered, mucosa, muscularis and adventitia
which of the following acts as a trigger for the initiation of micturition (voiding)
the stretching of the bladder wall.
The filtration membrane includes
glomerular endothelium, podocytes and a basement membrane
the mechanisim of water reabsorption by the renal tubles is
osmosis
most electrolyte reabsorption by the renal tubules is
hormonally controlled in distal tubule segments
the macula densa cells respond to
changes in solute content of the filtrate
not reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule
creatinine
the fuid in clomerular (Boman's) capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a ignificant amount of
plasma protein
alcohol acts as a diuretic because
it inhibits the release of ADH
the function of angiotensin II is to
constrict arteriols and increase blood pressure
a disease caused by inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone by the pituitary gland with symptoms of polyuria is
diabetes insipidus
an important characteristic of urine is it's specific gravity or density which is
1.001-1.035
sequence from drop of urine to its elimination from the body
nephron, collecting duct, minor calyx, major calyx, ureter, urethra
the parietal layer of the glomerular capsule is
simple wquamous epithelium
what would happen if the capsular hydrostatic pressure were increased above normal
net filtration would decrease
not a part of the juxtaglomerular appartatus
podocyte cells
tubular reabsorption
by active mechanisims usually involves movement against an electrical and or chemical gradient
reabsorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by
secondary active transport
one of the function of the loop of Henle
form a large volume of very dilute urine or a small volume of very concentrated urine
fetal kidneys do not have to work very hard because
the placenta allows the mother's urinary system to clear the waste from the fetal blood.
kidney function in older adults
decreases due to kidney atrophy
factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus is the
glomerular hydrostatic pressure
if the Tm for a particular amino acid is 120mg/100ml and the concentration of the acid in the blood is 230mg/100ml, the amino acid will
appear in the urine
if one says that the clearance value of glucose is zero, what does that mean?
normally all of the glucose is reabsorbed
excretion of dilute urine requires
impermeability of the collecting tuble to water
methods by which renal tubules can raise blood pH
secreting hydrogen ions into the filtrate, reabsorbing filtered bicarbonate ions and by producing new bicarbonate ions
in the ascending limb of the loop on Henle, the
thick segment moves ions out into interstitial spaces for reabsorption
kidneys develop from
urogenital ridges
reabsorption of water is
hormonally controlled
function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus
help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys
salt level monitoring part of the nephron
macula densa
hormone responsible for facultative water reabsorption
ADH
most important hormone regulator of electrollyte reabsorption and secretion
angiotensin II and aldosterone
which cells of the kidney are chemoreceptors that resond to changes in solute content of the filtrate
macula densa cells
the capillary bed that surrounds the descending and ascending loop of Henle of juxtamedulllary nephrons is called the
vasta recta
urine crystals in the renal pelvis are called
renal calculi
the area between the ureters and urethra is called the
trigone in a bladder
the myogenic mechanism is
the general tendency of vascular smooth muscle to contract when stretched.
the presence of pus in the urine is called
pyuria
sodium linked water flow across a membrane is called
obligatory water reabsorption