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Which has a greater specific gravity, 1mL of urine or 1mL of distilled water
Urine, it contained dissolved solutes which add density
Three constituents that may be present in a urinary tract infection
White blood cells, red blood cells, and casts
What are renal calculi and what conditions favor their formation
Kidney stones. Urinary retention, urinary tract infection and alkaline urine
the mechanisim that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability properties of the
loop on henle
an increase in the permeablility of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to an
increase in the production of ADH
helps maintain homeostasis by controlling the composition, volume and pressure of blood. Regulates blood glucose levels and produces hormones, and maintains blood osmolarity
functions of the urinary system
the glomerulus differs from the other capillaries in the body in that it
is drained by efferent arteriole
the decending limb of the loop of Henle
contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla
the fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because it
stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position
the juxtaglomerular apparatus is responsible for
regulating the rate of filtrate formation and controlling systemic blood pressure
the cheif force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is
glomerular hydrostatic pressure
which of the following statements describes the histology of the ureters
trilayered, mucosa, muscularis and adventitia
which of the following acts as a trigger for the initiation of micturition (voiding)
the stretching of the bladder wall.
most electrolyte reabsorption by the renal tubules is
hormonally controlled in distal tubule segments
the fuid in clomerular (Boman's) capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a ignificant amount of
a disease caused by inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone by the pituitary gland with symptoms of polyuria is
sequence from drop of urine to its elimination from the body
nephron, collecting duct, minor calyx, major calyx, ureter, urethra
what would happen if the capsular hydrostatic pressure were increased above normal
net filtration would decrease
by active mechanisims usually involves movement against an electrical and or chemical gradient
reabsorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by
secondary active transport
one of the function of the loop of Henle
form a large volume of very dilute urine or a small volume of very concentrated urine
fetal kidneys do not have to work very hard because
the placenta allows the mother's urinary system to clear the waste from the fetal blood.
if the Tm for a particular amino acid is 120mg/100ml and the concentration of the acid in the blood is 230mg/100ml, the amino acid will
appear in the urine
if one says that the clearance value of glucose is zero, what does that mean?
normally all of the glucose is reabsorbed
methods by which renal tubules can raise blood pH
secreting hydrogen ions into the filtrate, reabsorbing filtered bicarbonate ions and by producing new bicarbonate ions
in the ascending limb of the loop on Henle, the
thick segment moves ions out into interstitial spaces for reabsorption
function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus
help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys
most important hormone regulator of electrollyte reabsorption and secretion
angiotensin II and aldosterone
which cells of the kidney are chemoreceptors that resond to changes in solute content of the filtrate
macula densa cells
the capillary bed that surrounds the descending and ascending loop of Henle of juxtamedulllary nephrons is called the
the myogenic mechanism is
the general tendency of vascular smooth muscle to contract when stretched.
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