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World History Midterm Review 2014
Terms in this set (120)
What important discovery did the Sumerians make?
What form of religion was in Mesopotamia?
Who conquered the Sumerian city-states around 2340 B.C.?
What did the Sumerians develop?
Wheel, Math system based on 60, Sundial, Cuneiform
What was the basic unit of government for the Sumerian civilization?
How is Egyptian history divided?
Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, New Kingdom
What influenced the development of Egyptian civilization most closely?
the Nile River
Who was the chief god of Egypt?
Explain why small kingdoms and city-states in western Asia emerged.
Hittite kingdom ended and Egypt weakened
What people group is known mainly as monotheists?
What weakened the Persian Empire?
Struggles to control the Persian throne
Who founded the Persian Empire?
Who was the "Father of Geometry"?
What did the Stoics believe?
Do your duty because your fate is fixed
Who was the "Father of History"?
Upon what was the legend of the Trojan War based?
Troy and Mycenae
What was the Periclean Age?
Golden Age of great Greek cultural achievements
What are the beliefs of the Epicureans?
Happiness was the goal of life and could be achieved through the pursuit of pleasure
What are the results of the Persian Wars?
Greek unity, Periclean Age, Athens leader of Greece, Bolster spirit of independence and democracy
Who were the Berbers?
Nomadic traders of the Sahara
What is a syllogism?
Three step logical process developed by Aristotle
What does the term hellenic describe?
How did most tyrants come to power?
Under whose leadership did Athens reach its democratic zenith?
What was a key difference between the Greek city-states and the city-states of Mesopotamia?
Many of the Greek city-states were under the collective rule of local nobles
What was the Roman Senate?
A select group of about three hundred patricians who served for life in the Roman Republic
What most influenced the early development of Rome?
The Etruscan form of government
Who made up the First Triumvirate?
Crassus, Pompey, Julius Caesar
How did the emperor keep the poverty-stricken masses pacified?
Gave them free grain and provided entertainment on a grand scale
Under which emperor did Rome adopt Christianity as its official religion?
Theodosius the Great
What were the results of the political and military reforms of Diocletian and Constantine?
Greatly enhanced the army and civil service institutions, but drained most of the public funds
What were the reasons for the fall of Rome?
Barbarian invasions, economic factors, political disorder, moral decay
Who were the legendary founders of Rome?
Romulus and Remus
Why is the Battle of Adrianople in A.D. 378 important?
Roman loss opened the Empire to Germanic invasion
Why is A.D. 476 given as the date for the fall of Rome?
German Odoacer became the emperor
Upon what serious political and social tensions was the focus in Rome during the last years of the republic and the first years of the empire?
Patterns of land distribution
Why did Octavian escape Caesar's fate?
He preserved the façade of the Republic while cautiously consolidating his power
Despite repression by the Roman government, to what group did Christianity have great appeal?
Slaves and women
Why were the conquests of Alexander important? s.a.
Provided a common culture and language - Greek
What were the reasons for the fall of Rome? s.a.
political disorder, economic problems, moral decay, barbarian invasions
What three cultures replaced the Roman Empire? s.a.
Byzantine Empire, Medieval Europe, Islamic Empire
List the Five Pillars of Islam. s.a.
1. Belief 2. Fasting 3. Pilgrimage 4. Prayer 5. Charity
Give the three factors that led to the rapid expansion of the Islamic Empire. s.a.
1. Weakness of the Byzantine Empire 2. Desire for fertile land 3. Jihad
Give Islam's contributions to world civilization. s.a.
Medical knowledge, Literature, Mathematics
Why did Muhammad begin to meditate in the hills?
He became troubled by the gap between honesty of most of Mecca and the greediness of trading elites in the city
To what did the revolt led by Hussein in the early Umayyad period lead?
Split of Islam into two groups, the Shiites and the Sunnis
What replaced the Umayyad dynasty?
According to Islamic belief, who is the prophet of Allah?
According to the Quran, what is jihad?
Fair, defensive warfare
Which independent state combined Arab and African cultures?
not on power point
What did the Mongols accomplish under the leadership of Temujin?
brought the entire Eurasian landmass under a single rule, creating the largest land empire in history
What was the purpose of the samurai?
Protect the security and property of their employers
How do followers of Threavada see Buddhism?
a way of life
In the Tang and Song Eras, the old landed aristocracy was replaced as the political and economic elite of Chinese society by what new group?
How do followers of Mahayana Buddhism see Buddhism?
A religion with Buddha as a divine figure
Why were Muslim rulers in India tolerant of Hindus?
They realized there were simply too many Hindus to convert them all
What Germanic tribes invaded the lands of the Roman Empire?
Angles, Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Saxons, Franks, Lombards, Vandals
What did the overthrow of the Ming dynasty allow?
Manchus to seize power and establish the Qing Dyynasty
What caused the Opium Wars?
In an attempt to adjust the trade imbalance with China, Britain began shipping opium grown in India directly to China
What was a major result of the Treaty of Nanjing for Britain?
Gained Hong Kong and other ports, among other concessions
What major policy happened during 1650 in Japan?
Tokugawa instituted an isolationist policy
Why did the Tokugawa expel the Europeans and adopt an isolationist policy?
fear of influence
What was the result of Japan's victory in the Russo-Japanese War?
the rise of Japan as a modern power
What were the benefits of British rule to Indians? s.a.
New industry, agricultural techniques, social changes, western-style education, transportation, communication, Christianity
What did the Greeks believe about history? s.a.
Could learn lessons from the past to apply to problems in the present
What was the problem with the Greek emphasis on man? s.a.
Man became independent of the whole and the center of the universe, relegating God to insignificance
Give the steps that made Christianity legal.
A.D. 311 Constantine makes legal in the east, A.D. 313 Constantine issued the Edict of Milan, A.D. 395 Theodosius the Great made Christianity the official religion of Rome
What problems did the British face in India?s.a.
Large territory, large population, diverse languages, diverse religion, cultural clashes
the term for a large political unit or state, usually under a single leader, controlling many peoples and territories
Sumerian writing system, considered first writing system
Fertile Crescent -
the arc of rich soil between the Mediterranean Sea and the Persian Gulf
Egyptian writing system
first pharaoh who united Egypt
Rosetta Stone -
key to the translation of hieroglyphics
the governor of a Persian province
the king of the Chaldeans who rebuilt Babylon
Euclid's book on geometry
Greek writer of tragedy
Greek philosopher and mathematician who developed the idea that the universe could be explained mathematically
Father of Medicine
work on logic
Pax Romana -
a period of peace and prosperity that lasted about a hundred years
the first Christian emperor
Twelve Tables -
the body of laws that was Rome's first written one
a law code that provides believers with a set of practical laws to regulate their daily lives
camel caravans -
"fleets of the desert" that made trade possible with the interior of Africa
center of trade in Kush
ruler of Mongol state based in Smarkand who invaded northern India
East India Company -
private company that acted as an agent of the English crown in India
Battle of Naseby -
British victory at the battle during the French and Indian War guaranteed its control of India
Qing Dynasty -
last dynasty in China
John Hay -
United States Secretary of State who proposed the Open Door policy for China
Open Door Policy -
economic and foreign policy proposed by the United States which basically allowed all Western Powers and Japan to trade anywhere in China and began to eliminate spheres of influence
Sepoy Mutiny -
name of the uprising of Indian soldiers against British rule
family that would dominate the shogunate from 1603 until 1868
Toyotomi Hideyoshi -
by 1590 had persuaded most of the daimyo to accept his authority
Oda Nobunaga -
seized the capital of Kyoto and placed the shogun under his control
Matthew Perry -
American naval commodore who forced Japan to open to outsiders
Freedom and People's Rights Movement -
organization demanding voting rights for women and attention to human rights
Meiji Restoration -
restoration of the Yamato emperor Mutsuhito control of Japan: real power was the Satsuma-Choshu alliance
Tokugawa Ieyasu -
took the title of shogun in 1603 and completed the unification of Japan
Hundred Days of Reform -
attempt by Guang Xu's attempt to carry out political, administrative, and educational reforms
Boxer Rebellion -
showed the weakness of the Qing Dynasty
Tai Ping Rebellion -
was caused by the failure of the Chinese government to deal with pressing internal economic problems
Hong Xiuquan -
Christian convert who viewed himself as the younger brother of Jesus Christ and led the Tai Ping Rebellion
spheres of influence -
where the European states had exclusive trading rights in China
practice of Europeans being governed by their own laws while living on Chinese soil
Guang Xu -
launched the One Hundred Days of Reform
Ci Xi -
opposed the emperor's reforms and imprisoned him
adopt Western technology while retaining Confucian values
Chinese republic -
Chinese government established in 1911
Yuan Shigai -
agreed to serve as president of a new Chinese republic after the collapse of the Qing dynasty
Sun Yat-sen -
young radical who formed the Kuomintang
Chiang Kai-shek -
became leader of the Kuomintang after the death of Sun
Mao Zedong -
Chinese communist leader
Shanghai Massacre -
event in 1927 where the Kuomintang broke its alliance with the communists
Long March -
6000 mile retreat of the communists to northern China
military leaders of Japan who ruled in the emperor's name
heads of noble families
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chapter 1 lesson 1
Chapter 1 Section 2
Fertile Cresent Test
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