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forensic science chapter 2 exam reveiw
Terms in this set (33)
Individualized evidence can have probative value. _______ have high probative value because _______ can belong to only one person.
Can individual evidence be used to link a suspect with certainty to a victim or crime?
In forensic science, a control sample is one whose origin is unknown.
Class evidence may be useful when there are different types of evidence or there is a lot of it.
In a laboratory context, a _____ is often a sample used to test a method, and a standard is a __________
control; known sample
Evidence is collected from the ___________, while controls are collected from the______________.
crime scene; victim, suspects, or other know sources
Which type of evidence has a common origin?
Class evidence, such as blood type, does not help exonerate suspects.
False. It can exonerate suspects who are from a different group. For example, if type A blood is left at a crime scene, people with types O, AB, and B may be eliminated as the source.
Which type of evidence only shares common characteristics?
_____ evidence does not generally prove a fact (probative value), except in cases where it exonerates or eliminates individuals.
Can class evidence be used to link a suspect with certainty to a victim or crime?
Class evidence can be used to narrow a field of suspects by taking the probabilities and multiplying them together to provide stronger evidence.
Is direct evidence the same as testimonial evidence?
Yes. Direct evidence is a statement taken under oath, as in the case of an eyewitness account.
Tangible items that tend to prove some material fact; also called real evidence.
Evidence based on suggestion rather than personal knowledge or observation.
Evidence providing only a basis for inference about the disputed fact.
Material that can be associated only with a group of items that share properties or characteristics.
Material that can be related to a single source; individualization always involves a comparison.
what is said in court by a competent witness; also called direct evidence or prima facie evidence
something that tends to establish or disprove a fact.
material that has been collected from a known location but is of unknown origin.
Material that comes from a proven or known source.
Material that is similar to the questioned and known samples, and is used to validate the test method and procedure.
What is generally more reliable? Physical evidence or Testimonial evidence.
What does indirect evidence imply?
It implies a fact or provides a basis for its inference.
What significant type of evidence was used to convict Coral Eugene Watts?
Why did prosecutors want to reopen the Coral Eugene Watts case after so many years?
To stop Watts from committing any more crimes after he was released.
What is the significance of the Ronald Cotton case?
The case illustrates the fallibility of eyewitness accounts.
What does Circumstantial/Physical evidence imply?
It implies a fact or event but does not prove it, while physical may prove a fact and is specifically relevant to the crime.
Give examples of transit evidence.
3. Imprints and Indentations
4. Prints that can blow away
5. Obliterated by rain.
Give examples of Conditional evidence.
Hair fibers can be physical evidence, list a couple more.
3. Tool marks
4. Gunshot residues
There are many factors that may affect the memory of an eyewitness in recounting a crime. List a couple.
2. Length of time between the offense and the testimony.
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