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Intro to Sociology
Terms in this set (110)
Sociologist C. Wright Mills spoke of an awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society and referred to this awareness as
the sociological imagination.
Within sociology, a/an __________ is a set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions, or behavior.
__________ and Friedrich Engels prepared a platform called The Communist Manifesto, in which they argued that the masses of people who have no resources other than their labor (the proletariat) should unite to fight for the overthrow of capitalist societies.
Which kind of sample is most frequently used by social scientists?
a random sample
A study, generally in the form of an interview or questionnaire, is known as what?
Which sociological perspective would view society as a living organism in which each part of the organism contributes to its survival and stability?
Which sociological perspective generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to understand society as a whole?
Which sociological perspective(s) believes that the most powerful groups and institutions control wealth, property, and the means of producing beliefs about reality through religion, education, and the media?
all of the above
Which of the following is included in the code of ethics for sociology?
All of the above
Culture is defined as
the totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior.
The emergence of Starbucks in China illustrates a rapidly escalating trend called
What term did William Ogburn introduce to refer to the period of maladjustment when the nonmaterial culture is still adapting to new material conditions?
Standards of proper dress are a common example of which one of the following?
What is the term used when one places a priority on understanding other cultures, rather than dismissing them as "strange" or "exotic?"
Suppose a clerk tries to appear busier than he or she actually is when a supervisor happens to be watching. Goffman would study this behavior from what approach?
an interactionist approach
Occasionally, assuming new social and occupational positions requires us to unlearn a previous orientation. We refer to this process as what?
Which sociological perspective would argue that schools in this country foster competition through built-in systems of reward and punishment?
In what he called the play stage of socialization, George Herbert Mead asserted that people mentally assume the perspectives of others in order to respond from that imagined viewpoint. This process is referred to as
At age 15, Hispanic girls celebrate reaching womanhood with a ceremony called quinceanera. This illustrates
a rite of passage.
A person's age is an example of what kind of status?
In the United States, we expect that cab drivers will know how to get around a city. This expectation is an example of what?
a social role
What occurs when incompatible expectations arise from two or more social positions held by the same person?
Social control in the Gemeinschaft community is maintained through all but which one of the following means?
legally defined punishment
Which one of the following men defined postindustrial society as a society whose economic system is engaged primarily in the processing and control of information?
Which type of society is a technologically sophisticated society that is preoccupied with consumer goods and media images?
__________ refers to the way in which a society is organized into predictable relationships.
The mass media, the government, the economy, the family, and the health care system are all examples of
According to the _____principle, every employee within a hierarchy tends to rise to his or her level of incompetence.
The very existence of an in-group implies that there is a/an __________ group viewed as "they" or "them."
In Milgram's study, the subjects in the follow-up study were less likely to inflict the supposed shocks as they were moved physically closer to their victims. This finding is particularly important to what sociological perspective?
Which sociological perspective would argue that deviance is a common part of human existence, with positive (as well as negative) consequences for social stability?
In which of Merton's modes of individual adaptation would one accept institutionalized means but reject societal goals?
Police officers, school administrators, employers, and managers of movie theaters are all instruments of
formal social control
behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society.
Durkheim used which term in referring to loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective?
Labeling theory is also called the __________ approach.
Professional crime refers to
the pursuit of crime as a day-to-day occupation, involving skilled techniques and the enjoyment of a certain degree of status among other criminals.
The __________ approach emphasizes that people learn criminal behavior through interactions with others.
According to the text's discussion, crime
All of the above
The most extreme form of legalized inequality for individuals or groups is what?
Which stratification system is a social ranking based primarily on economic position in which achieved characteristics can influence social mobility?
Sociologist Daniel Rossides places elementary school teachers and nurses in which social class?
According to Marx, exploitation of the proletariat will inevitably lead to
the destruction of capitalism
Which sociological perspective maintains that a differential system of rewards and punishments is necessary for the efficient operation of society?
Which standard of poverty theoretically remains unchanged from year to year?
The term __________ describes a condition in which members of a society have different amounts of wealth, prestige, or power.
Sociologist Immanuel Wallerstein draws on which sociological perspective when he argues that the global economic system is divided between nations that control wealth and nations from which resources are taken?
Wallerstein's world systems analysis is the most widely used version of which theory?
Airline pilot and a police officer have the same occupational prestige ranking. Suppose that a former airline pilot becomes a police officer. Sociologists call this kind of movement __________ mobility.
One important and widespread form of prejudice is __________: the belief that one race is supreme and all others are innately inferior.
In the wake of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on the United States, Congress passed the Aviation and Transportation Security Act which stipulates that all airport screeners must be citizens. This act represents an example of
The S.S. St. Louis was denied permission to land in the United States in 1939 even though which group of refugees was on board?
__________ involves giving priority to minority members for jobs, promotions, and educational opportunities.
Rules requiring that only English be spoken at a place of work, even when it is not a business necessity to restrict the use of other languages, reflect
The term __________ refers to an invisible barrier that blocks the promotion of a qualified individual in a work environment because of that person's gender, race, or ethnicity.
Which sociological perspective notes that much of the debate over immigration is phrased in economic terms?
The contact hypothesis has its roots in what sociological perspective?
What term do sociologists use to refer to a negative attitude toward an entire category of people, often an ethnic or racial minority?
The "one-drop rule" in the southern part of the United States was a vivid example of
the social construction of race.
The research of anthropologist Margaret Mead points to the importance of what in defining the social roles of males and females?
Which sociological perspective contends that the relationship between females and males has traditionally been one of unequal power with men in a dominant position over women?
From which sociological perspective are simple, day-to-day exchanges one more battleground in the struggle for sexual equality?
Both males and females are physically capable of learning to cook and sew, yet most Western societies determine that these tasks should be performed by women. This illustrates the operation of
__________ refers to emphasis on tasks, focus on more distant goals, and a concern for the external relationship between one's family and other social institutions.
__________ denotes concern for maintenance of harmony and the internal emotional affairs of the family.
Sexism is generally used to refer to
male prejudice and discrimination against women.
The term glass ceiling refers to
an invisible barrier that blocks the promotion of a qualified worker because of the individual's gender, race, or ethnicity.
Which sociological perspective on gender emphasizes that gender differentiation contributes to social stability?
Which amendment to the United States Constitution granted women the right to vote in national elections?
The marriage of a woman to more than one man at the same time is referred to as
The United States follows which system of descent?
In which type of society, do women dominate in family decision making?
A family is defined in the text as
a set of people related by blood, marriage (or some other agreed-upon relationship), or adoption who share the primary responsibility for reproduction and care of members.
When studying the family, __________ theorists emphasize the family as a perpetuator of gender roles.
Which sociological perspective on religion emphasizes that religion is a source of support for individuals?
Durkheim defined religion as
a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things
Outside of Christianity, the largest single faith in the world is
Viewed from the _____ perspective, Christianity may have pacified certain slaves and blunted the rage that often fuels rebellion.
Many people in the United States strongly adhere to the biblical explanation of the beginning of the universe. Adherents of this point of view are known as
Putting children in school keeps them off the street and out of trouble. This is an example of a(n):
latent function of education
The _______________ perspective views education as an instrument of elite domination.
The "hidden curriculum" refers to:
the standards of behavior that are deemed proper by society and are taught subtly in schools
The teacher-expectancy effect reflects the views of which sociological perspective?
the actual or threatened use of coercion to impose one's will on others
Every four years in the United States there is a presidential election, and after the election, nearly half the population readily accepts the leadership of the person for whom they did not vote. This is an example of:
___________ authority is derived more from the beliefs of followers than from the actual qualities of leaders.
Capitalism is an economic system in which:
means of production are largely in private hands, and the main incentive for economic activity is the accumulation of profits
an economic system under which the means of production and distribution are collectively owned
The People's Republic of China, Vietnam, and Cuba are the remaining societies that serve as ideal types of communist systems.
Which one of the following documents requires that a census be held every 10 years in the United States to determine congressional representation?
the United States Constitution
Which of the following terms refers to the average number of children born alive to any woman, assuming that she conforms to current fertility rates?
the total fertility rate
Which sociological perspective uses the term medicalization of society to refer to the growing role of medicine as a major institution of social control?
In 1986, thousands of people in Chernobyl died as a result of
The concentric-zone theory has its roots in which sociological perspective?
Which type of city exhibits the following characteristics: a closed class system, an economic realm controlled by guilds and a few families, and a pervasive influence of religion on social norms?
A legal strategy based on claims that racial minorities are subjected disproportionately to environmental hazards is called what?
Sociologist Talcott Parsons outlined the societal expectations related to the attitudes and behavior of a person being viewed as ill. These expectations are referred to as the __________ role.
Which of the following is/are among the key factors that restricted urbanization in early cities?
All of the above
C.D. Harris and Edward Ullman theorized that all urban growth does not radiate outward from a central business district, but rather a metropolitan area may have many centers of development. Their assessment is known as __________ theory.
Which term is used by sociologists to refer to organized collective activities aimed at bringing about fundamental changes in existing society?
Which of the following best illustrates relative deprivation?
Middle management workers in a corporation who are discontented because they cannot afford the luxury cars or expensive homes that their bosses have
Which term is used to refer to the ways in which a social movement utilizes such resources as money, political influence, access to the media, and personnel?
False consciousness is:
Marx's concept for attitudes that do not reflect the objective position of workers
Which sociological perspective would likely be interested in the labels attached to activists associated with a social movement such as a feminist student referred to as a "bra burner"?
At one point in time, most African territories were colonies of European powers. After colonization, these new African nations all evolved, but in many different directions. This illustrates which theory of social change?
Multilinear evolutionary theory
Large families are no longer economically necessary, nor are they commonly endorsed by social norms; but certain religious faiths, among them Roman Catholicism, continue to extol large families and to disapprove of using contraception to limit family size. This example illustrates:
A recent trend in globalization is that U.S. companies are shifting ___________ to developing countries.
office and professional jobs
A new technique of using technology to increase food production and alter plant genes is called:
The debate on genetic engineering intensified after 1997, when scientists in Scotland:
cloned a sheep
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