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Chapter 5

forensic science laboratory

the crime labatory in which physical evidence obtained by police in the course of an investigation is examined.

forensic scientists

laboratory technicians.


the profession and scientific discipline directed to the recogntion, identification, indivialization, and evaluation of physical evidence by application of the natural sciences in matters of law and science.


identification in relation to pysical evidence and analysis is defined as the determination of some set to which an object or substance belongs or the determination of some set to which an object or substance belongs a given set.

base pair

two of four varities of nucleic acids


combined in pairs


person-to person differences within a particular segment of DNA sequence.

polymerase chain reaction analysis

This techinique involves extracting DNA from a small evidence sample and then replicating it through a complex operation of repeated heating and cooling cycles and exposure to an enzyme.

short tandem repeats

loci to be served as a standard battery of core loci, each of which contains a short region where a sequence of three, four, or five nucleotides is repeated a different number of times in different people.


this system networks to link the typing results from unsolved criminal cases in multiple jurisdictions and by alerting investiagtors to similarities amoung unsolved crimes.


the radiation from an incandescent gas or vapor is concentrated in certain discrete wavelenghts.


such wave lenghts are characteristics of the emmitting a unique and characteristic pattern of wavelengths.


is a method of seprating compounds to identify the compents.

X-ray crystallography

is useful for the identification of any crystalline solid or compound from which a crystilline solid derivative can be made.


is also of use in processing very small samples, in examining samples with noncrystalline impurities, and in identifying inorganic and mineral substances.

neutron activation analysis

a terchinique that can analyze samples one hundred times too small for ordinary spectrographic techniques.

gamma ray spectormeter

is used to measure the distinctive radioactive gamma-ray emmisons and thereby to identify the elements from which the rays orginate. 1

trace metal detection techinique

makes the patterns of these objects visible on the skin or clothing of suspects when treated with a test solution and examined under ultraviolet light.

ultrasonic cavitation

is an etchig method that may replace chemical, electrolytic, and magnetic particle methods of restoring obliterated serial numbers on firearms and other metal objects.


are widely used in the detection of the latent fingerprints.


is the graphical identification of voices.


is increrasing in the world of crime.

substitution cipher

in which a symbol, letter, or digit stands for another symbol, letter, or digit.

Transpostion ciphers

are characterized by a change in the order of the enciphered material.

reversable transpostion

in which the telephone number 445-1769 would become 967-1544

split combination


frequency distribution study

will solve more complex ciphers, but this requires the work of experts with tables of letter and word frquencies.

NCIC (National Crime Information Computer System)

national data base that you and plug in a persons name and SS number that can tell you if that certain person has any warrents.

set theory

all objects can be divided and subdivided into various sets on the basis of their properties.

X-ray diffraction

used in processing very small samples, in examining samples with noncrystalline impurities, and in identifying inorganic and mineral substances.

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