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Kinn's 11th edition Chapter 27 and Chapter 30


low iron or folate intake


high-fat, low-fiber, low-complex-carbohydrate diet; high alcohol and sodium intake; sedentary lifestyle; tobacco use


low fiber, inadequate fluids; high-fat diet; sedentary lifestyle


Type 2: high-calorie, high-fat, low-complex-carbohydrate diet; obesity; sedentary lifestyle


high-calorie, high-fat diet; high alcohol and sodium intake; tobacco use; sedentary lifestyle; obesity; stress


low calcium intake; inadequate vitamin D or lack of sun exposure; high alcohol intake; sedentary lifestyle; tobacco use

A(n) ____________ nutrient, such as cholesterol, can be created within the body and does not need to be included in the diet.


_____________ are chemical organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and are primarily plant products in origin. They are divided into three groups based on the complexity of their molecules: simple sugars, complex carbohydrates (starch), and dietary fiber.


_____________ is a storage form of fuel that is used to supplement carbohydrates as an available energy source.


_____________ is produced by the liver and is found in animal foods; can produce atherosclerotic plaque deposits in arteries.


____________ are composed of units known as amino acids, which are the materials that our bodies use to build and repair tissues.


Vitamins are divided into two groups: __________-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) and __________-soluble vitamins (B complex and C).

Fat, Water

The ____________________ is the amount of energy needed by fasting, resting individuals to maintain vital function.

Basal Metabolic Rate

Dietary fiber is commonly called ________.


the process in which nutrients are used at the cellular level for growth, energy production, and excretion of waste


(amino acids --> proteins) Anabolism

the building phase in which smaller molecules are combined to form larger molecules

Catabolism (glycogen --> glucose)

the breaking-down phase in which larger molecules are broken down and converted into smaller units

List four functions of water.

plays a key role in maintaining body temperature; acts as a solvent and the medium for most biochemical reactions; acts as a lubricant for joints and mucous membranes; and acts as the vehicle for transport of substances such as nutrients, hormones, antibodies, and metabolic waste

List four functions of proteins.

builds and repairs body tissue such as new tissue, hormones, blood, and enzymes; aids in the body's defense mechanisms by creating antibodies; regulates fluid and electrolyte balance; provides energy when carbohydrates and fat stores are depleted

Name the two types of lipoproteins.

high-density lipoproteins and low-density lipoproteins

What are the benefits of omega-3 fatty acids?

found in large amounts in the cerebral cortex of the brain and help form the retina; have antiinflammatory effects including improving the immune response protecting blood vessels, and inhibiting the formation of blood clots

What types of foods contain monounsaturated fats?

Olives and olive oil, peanuts and peanut oil, canola oil, pecans, and avocados

Obesity is caused by excessive _______ intake.


_____________ includes sugars and starches.


Magnesium (Mg2+)

FUNCTIONS: helps build strong bones and teeth; activates many enzymes; helps regulate heartbeat; participates in protein synthesis and lipid metabolism
SOURCES: raw, dark green vegetables; nuts and soybeans; whole grains and wheat bran; bananas and apricots; seafood and coffee; tea; cocoa, and hard water

Potassium (K+)

FUNCTIONS: plays a key role in fluid and acid-base balance; transmits nerve impulses, helps control muscle contractions and promotes regular heartbeat; needed for enzyme reactions
SOURCES: apricots; bananas; oranges; grapefruit; raisins; green beans; broccoli; carrots; greens; potatoes; meats; milk and milk products; peanut butter and legumes; molasses; coffee; tea; cocoa

Sodium (Na+)

FUNCTIONS: plays a key role in the maintenance of acid-base balance; transmits nerve impulses and helps control muscle contractions; regulates cell membrane permeability
SOURCES: salt; milk and milk products; several vegetables

Iodine (I-)

FUNCTIONS: helps regulate energy metabolism through being part of thyroid hormones; essential for normal cell functioning, helps to keep skin, hair, and nails healthy
SOURCES: iodized salt; saltwater fish; seaweed products; vegetables grown in iodine-rich soils

Iron (Fe3+)

FUNCTIONS: essential to the formation of hemoglobin, which is important for tissue respiration and ultimately growth and development; part of several enzymes and proteins in the body
SOURCES: heme sources: organ meats--especially liver, red meats, and other meats; nonheme sources: iron-fortified cereals; dark green leafy vegetables; legumes; whole grains; blackstrap molasses; dried fruit; foods cooked in iron pans

Vitamin A (carotene)

FUNCTIONS: formation and maintenance of skin, hair, and mucous membranes; helps us see in dim light; bone and tooth growth
SOURCES: yellow or orange fruits and vegetables; green leafy vegetables; fortified oatmeal; liver; dairy products

Vitamin B1 (thiamine)

FUNCTIONS: helps body release energy from carbohydrates during metabolism; growth and muscle tone
SOURCES: fortified cereals and oatmeals; meats; rice and pasta; whole grains; liver

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)

FUNCTIONS: helps body release energy from protein, fat, and carbohydrates during metabolism
SOURCES: whole grains; green leafy vegetables; organ meats; milk; eggs

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)

FUNCTIONS: helps build body tissue and aids in metabolism of protein
SOURCES: fish; poultry; lean meats; bananas; prunes; dried beans; whole grains; avocados

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin)

FUNCTIONS: aids cell development, functioning of the nervous system, and the metabolism of protein and fat.
SOURCES: meats; milk products; seafood


FUNCTIONS: involved in metabolism of protein, fats, and carbohydrates
SOURCES: cereal/grain products; yeast; legumes; liver

Folate (folacin, folic acid)

FUNCTIONS: aids in genetic material development and involved in red blood cell production
SOURCES: green leafy vegetables; organ meats; dried peas, beans, and lentils


FUNCTIONS: involved in carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism
SOURCES: meat, poultry, and fish; enriched cereals; peanuts; potatoes; dairy products; eggs

Pantothenic acid

FUNCTIONS: helps in the release of energy from fats and carbohydrates
SOURCES: lean meats; whole grains; legumes; vegetables; fruits

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

FUNCTIONS: essential for structure of bones, cartilage, muscle, and blood vessels; also helps maintain capillaries and gums and aids in absorption of iron
SOURCES: citrus fruits; berries; vegetables--especially peppers
Strawberries have the highest concentration

Vitamin D

FUNCTIONS: aids in bone and tooth formation; helps maintain heart action and nervous system
SOURCES: fortified milk; sunlight; fish; eggs; butter; fortified margarine

Vitamin E

FUNCTIONS: protects blood cells, body tissue, and essential fatty acids from harmful destruction in the body
SOURCES: fortified and multigrain cereals; nuts; wheat germ; vetable oils; green leafy vegetables

Vitamin K

FUNCTIONS: essential for blood clotting functions
SOURCES: green leafy vegetables; fruit; dairy and grain products

What action do viruses take when they enter the body's cells?

They incorporate into reproductive cells

When is the only time you can recap a needle?


What is a medical exposure control plan?

Written plan required by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration that outlines an employer's system for preventing infection.

What things are important when you are hand washing?

Warm water and friction; hands should be washed for a minimum of 15 seconds with antimicrobial soap and warm running water.

When would you use PPE's?

Medical assistants should use appropriate barrier precautions when contact with blood or other body fluids is expected, performing venipuncture, finger punctures, injections, and other vascular-access procedures. Assisting with surgical procedures; cleaning and decontaminating spills of blood or other bodily fluids.

Potentially infectious fluids

Cerebrospinal fluid, mucus, liquid or semiliquid blood, vaginal and seminal secretions, saliva, any body fluid contaminated with blood, unknown body fluid, wound drainage, human tissue, cells or exudates, (all body fluid except urine)

What does PPE include?

personal protective equipment- masks, goggles, face sheilds, respirator.

What is a bacterial spore?

Resistant internal structure, that makes treatment difficult.

What is cell-mediated immunity?

destroys pathogens at the site; e.g. phaocytosis

What is a vector?

Any living organism that can carry a disease-producing virus

What are the steps if you get an accidental needle stick?

THE FIRST THING YOU SHOULD DO IS WASH THE NEEDLE STICK SITE FIRST. report the accident to your supervisor, the employee must immediately receive a medical evaluation and complete an incident report, the source individual must be screened for HBV, HCV, and HIV,

What are the 3 steps to cleaning an instrument? Give a significant fact about each step.

Remove debris, blood and other bodily fluids from instrument or equipment, wear utility gloves to prevent possible personal contamination, Completed immediately after use in a separate workroom or area to avoid cross-contamination, Separate sharp instruments from others to prevent injury and protect instruments.
Open hinges and scrub serrations and ratchets. Rinse instruments in hot water and check proper working order.
Items should be hand dried.
Ultrasonic sanitizers are helpful because they do not damage instruments and workers are protected from an accidental sharps injury.


condition in which one feels that one's surroundings are turning about; dizziness

Nosocomial Infection

a disease acquired in a hospital or clinical setting


any substance (as a toxin or enzyme) that stimulates the production of antibodies


hives, vascular reaction of the skin marked by transient appearance of wheals



What is lactose found in?

glucose and galactose beta 1-4 bond and found in milk

What do we find in meats and nuts?


Sources of calcium and vitamin D?

milk, dark green leafy vegetables, soy products; sardines; slamon and hard water; sunlight, eggs and butter

Where do we find the highest content of fiber?

Raw vegetables

What are the 3 antioxidant vitamins?

Vitamin C, E and Beta-carotene

What nutrient has 9 k cal/gram?


What are the 2 eating disorders?

Bulimia and anorexia

chronic infection

an infection of long duration

latent infection

Spikes quickly, declines quickly. not always detectable, but will flare up occasionally. Cycles through periods of relapse and remission.
Herpes, Shingles and Cold Sores.

Opportunistic infection

an infection caused by a microorganism that normally does not cause disease but that becomes pathogenic if the patient's immune system is weakened


having or experiencing a rapid onset, lasts a short time but severe course.

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