Functional Groups Molec Biol

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what are the 6 functions of proteins?catalysis, transport, movement, structure, signals, defensewhat are the four levels of structure called and what do they meanprimary (order), secondary (alpha or beta through interactions), tertiary (3D order of things), quaternary (multiple pieces fitting together)what is the difference between DNA and RNA?RNA (single stranded, Uracil instead of Thymine, higher reactivity, less stable, two OH groups), DNA (double stranded, Thymine instead of Uracil, lower reactivity, only one OH group)adeninesee pictureThymidesee pictureUracilsee pictureGuaninesee pictureCytosinesee picturewhat are the two types of linkages between carbohydratesalpha, betawhat are the two possible locations of linkages in carbs1,4 or 1,6what are four(ish) structural differences that could result in different molecules (for carbs)location of linkage, order of monomers, types of linkages, combination of monomersHypertonicwhen comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutesHypotonicHaving a lower concentration of solute than another solutionIsotonicwhen the concentration of two solutions is the samewhy can integral proteins pass through the whole bilayer?they have nonpolar amino acids on their outsidestructural differences between channel and carrier proteinschannel (porous structure, doesn't move) carrier (shuttles, changes configuration)Starch structurePolysaccharide with unbranched chain of glucose with alpha linkagesGlycogen structureBranches have alpha(1,6) bonds; Linkages have alpha(1,4) bonds.Cellulose structureBeta 1,4 glycocidic linkages in a straight line.Chitin structurePolysaccharide with unbranched chain of glucose with beta linkages and nitrogen groupspeptidoglycan structuredisaccharide-NAG, NAM peptide chain-D-amino acids, Di-amino acidssaturated fatssingle bonds, tight together, more solidunsaturated fatshave double bonds, less tight, more fluidPhagocytosisA type of endocytosis in which a cell engulfs large particles or whole cellsKinesinA class of motor proteins that uses the chemical energy of ATP to "walk" toward the plus end of a microtubule. Used to transport vesicles, particles, organelles and chromosomes.DyeninMolecular motor protein that transports material retrograde to microtubule (+ to -)MyosinA protein present in muscle fibers that aids in contraction and makes up the majority of muscle fiberactin filamentsshape, movement, splitting of cellintermediate filamentsmaintain shape, anchor nucleus to organellesMicrotubulestracks for intracellular transport, moves cells,ribosomes functionprotein synthesisendomembrane system functionprotein synthesis and processingSmooth ER functionlipid synthesisrough ER functionprotein synthesisGolgi apparatus functionfurther processing of proteins, carbs, and lipidsLysosomestransport and break downperoxisomesoxidize fatty acids, ethanol, etc.microtubule organizing center...what is it?centrosome, minus end of microtubules∆Ggreater than 0 = endergonic (absorbs E), less than 0 = exergonic (releases E)∆S∆S >0 = more disorder, ∆S <0 = less disorder∆H∆H >0 = endothermic (absorbs heat), ∆H <0 = exothermic (releases heat)coenzymenonprotein necessary for enzyme functioncofactorsubstance (other than substrate) that is needed for the enzyme to workprosthetic groupsnon-polypeptide group bound to enzyme structure necessary for function

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