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Pharmacology Exam 4 Ch. 38-42 Anti-Infective Dugs
Terms in this set (18)
female patient teaching regarding antibiotics, antifungals, and antiviral agents
-patient needs to use a second method of birth control because many of these drugs can make oral contraceptives ineffective
what organ can antifungals and antiviral medications affect?
-pt teaching regarding these
-can damage the liver
-teach pt to report any jaundice, nausea, vomiting, clay-colored stools, and/or dark urine to the prescriber
describe the cross sensitivity allergic reactions to penicillins regarding cephalosporins.
ceph and kef drug names
-if mild reaction occurs, pt may be able to take cephalosporin
-if severe reaction like anaphylaxis occurs, pt needs to avoid cephalosporin
what is empiric therapy?
treatment of an infection with an antibiotic before specific culture information has been reported or obtained
what is prophylactic therapy with antibiotics?
Preventative antibiotic therapy because patient is at risk of developing an infection but doesn't necessarily have an infection.
what is a superinfection? why does it happen, give examples of these infections
-when antibiotics reduce or completely eliminate the normal bacteria for that are needed to maintain a normal function of some organs
-ex: vaginal yeast infection, or a pt that has a viral respiratory infection develops a secondary bacterial infection
what to teach a client about antibiotic treatment to help prevent drug resistance?
-finish all prescribed antibiotics, do not save them or miss a dose
what are the signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis
-flushing, itching, hives, anxiety, fast irregular pulse, and throat and tongue swelling
when are peak and trough drug levels obtained?
-peak: 30 min after a 30 min infusion
-trough: just before next dose
which drugs an produce ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity?
-what labs need monitored? what are the normal levels?
ahminoglycosides and vancomycin
what is red man syndrome associated with vancomycin, what are nursing considerations for this?
-flushing or rash of upper body, dyspnea, itching, hypotension
-antihistamines may be needed, IV infusion should be given over for at least 1 hour (slow infusion), watch for extravasation
what assessment data will a nurse use to evaluate the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy in a pt being treated for HIV?
-a significant reduction in mortality and incidence of opportunistic infections
-improvement of patients physical performance
-increase T cell counts
what are opportunistic infections?
-when are they most likely to occur?
-infections that occur more frequently and are more severe in people with weakened immune systems inducing ppl with HIV
-most likely to occur if the CD4 cell count falls below 200 cells/mm
what treatment for influence is most effective?
-when treatment begins within 2 days of symptoms onset
what can Isoiazid (INH) produce?
-what might the pt need
-can produce pyridoxine (vitamin B6 deficiency which can produce peripheral neuropathy)
-may need Vitamin B6
how does a nurse evaluate for a therapeutic response to treatment for TB?
-decreased symptoms of TB such as cough, fever, and by weight gain.
-labs and X-rays will also confirm resolution of the infection along with improved clinical status
what is amphotericin B used for?
systemic mycoses (fungal infections in the blood)
what are the adverse side effects of amphotericin B?
-how to prevent these?
-fever chills, hypotension, tachycardia, malice, muscle and joint pain, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and HA
-pretreatment with antipyretics, antihistamines, antiemetics, and corticosteroids
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