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How does a competitive inhibitor slow enzyme catalysis?

They compete with the substrate for the enzyme's active site.

What enables competitive inhibitors to bind to a specific enzyme?

Competitive inhibitors have structures that resemble the enzyme's substrate.

If high amounts of sulfanilamide are in the presence of an enzyme whose substrate is PABA, what outcome is expected?

The enzyme will stop functioning.

Which of the following statements regarding competitive inhibitors is true?

Competitive inhibitors decrease the rate of enzyme activity.

Which of the following is true regarding factors that influence enzymatic activity?

The rate of enzymatic reactions declines beyond the optimum temperature due to the loss of the enzyme's three-dimensional structure.

In which mechanism of phosphorylation are electrons transferred from organic compounds to one group of electron carriers (usually to NAD+ and FAD), and then passed through a series of different electron carriers?

Oxidative phosphorylation

Which of the following statements about fermentation is true?

It is an alternative way to return electron carriers to their oxidized state.

What is the role of pyruvic acid in fermentation?

It takes the electrons from NADH, oxidizing it back into NAD+.

What is the fate of the NAD+ newly regenerated by fermentation?

It returns to glycolysis to pick up more electrons.

Which of the following is an acid produced by fermentation?

Lactic acid and propionic acid

What is the intermediate product formed by pyruvic acid during alcoholic fermentation?


What defines fermentation?

- Fermentation releases energy from sugars or other organic molecules.
- Fermentation does not require oxygen, but sometimes can occur in the presence of oxygen.
- Fermentation produces only small amounts of ATP (one or two ATP molecules for each molecule of starting material).

Which of the following nutritional classes of organisms use carbon dioxide (CO2) as their carbon source and use light as their energy source?


A strictly fermentative bacterium produces energy

By glycolysis only.

Which of the following is the best definition of fermentation?

The oxidation of glucose with organic molecules serving as electron acceptors

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