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52 terms

Abnormal Psychology chapter 4

STUDY
PLAY
Intern's syndrome
Students that find themselves thinking that they have one or more of the disorders they are learning about.
Mood disorders
A disorder that causes disturbances in the way people feel across a relatively long period of time
Major depressive disorder
A mood disorder that typically defines depression. Can be characterized by anhedonia or bad mood (either of these two needs to be present), (4 of the 7 following also need to be present) feelings of worthlessness, guilt, suicidal thoughts, lack or increase in weight, insomnia or hypersomnia, tiredness, difficulty concentrating, psychomotor disturbance
anhedonia, depression
To be classified as having a major depressive disorder, either _________ or ___________ need to be present
4, 7
__ of the __ other characteristics need to be present to be classified as a major depressive disorder
anhedonia
a lack of pleasure or interest in previously enjoyed activities
2 weeks
Symptoms of depression need to have been present for __________ in order for the patient to be diagnosed with major depressive disorder
insomnia
inability to sleep
hypersomnia
too much sleep
typical depression
weight loss coupled with insomnia
atypical depression
weight gain coupled with hypersomnia
psychomotor agitation
a person acts "sped up" (fidgeting, speaking quickly, etc.) or "slows down" (speaking and moving incredibly slow)
depressive episode
The period of time that someone suffers from acute depression
decrease, recurrent
Depression tends to _________ over time, yet is often ___________
4
Individuals often have __ depressive episodes in a lifetime
serotonin
low levels of ________ have been linked to major depressive disorder
cognitive model
the model that states that thoughts cause feelings
palliative
medication that eases the symptoms of a disorder but does not cure it. Kind of like cough syrup
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
One of the 3 types of antidepressant medications. These increase the amount of available norepinephrine and serotonin in the synapse. Very uncommon type of drug, seeing as how you can't take it with many other things
Tricyclic antidepressants
One of the 3 types of antidepressant medications. These increase the amount of norepinephrine in the synapse. These cause annoying side effects though and can even cause death if overdosed. Don't give to a suicidal person!
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
One of the 3 types of antidepressant medications. These increase the amount of serotonin in the synapse. Fluoxetine (or prozac) is the most common. These are the most favored antidepressant. Sexual side effects happen though. Takes 2 weeks to begin working.
fluoxetine
another word for Prozac
placebo effect
Improvement in symptoms that occur simply because a person expects to feel better
recurrence
Therapy is important because it is more effective than medication at preventing ___________ of depression
cognitive therapy
Therapy that works at altering dysfunctional cognitions. Attempts to give the clients homework to alter their thought processes. Very efficient.
Cognitive behavioral therapy
Therapy that works at altering dysfunctional cognitions as well as behavior change. The therapist helps the client to schedule outings with friends, exercising, journaling, etc.
Interpersonal therapy
Therapy the encourages emotional expression and deals with difficulties in social relationships
Dysthymia
A lower-level, longer-lasting depression. Characterized as a depressed mood for the majority of the day for a minimum of 2 years. Must have 2 or more of 6 symptoms, which are sleep and appetite disturbances, physical exhaustion, difficulty concentrating, feelings of hopelessness, and low self-esteem. The etiology and treatment is similar to major depressive disorder
bipolar disorder
This disorder was formally called manic depression
bipolar disorder
major depressive episodes that alternate with manic episodes. 3 symptoms must be present to be considered such. When in the manic phase, individual feels abnormally high self-esteem or grandiosity, believes they are more important than others, and has delusional beliefs
manic episode
at least 1 week of abnormally elevated or irritable mood. Usually accompanied by delusions or hallucinations
Rapid cycling
One of the 2 types of bipolar disorder. This is when there are four or more distinct manic or depressive episodes in 1 year
Mixed episode
One of the 2 types of bipolar disorder. Occurs when a person meets criteria for both manic and major depressive episode nearly every day for a week or longer. Most dangerous of them all. Imagine... this person is so depressed that he is suicidal and also has the motivation to carry it out.
bipolar disorder
The deadliest mental illness is ________ _________
biological
The etiology of bipolar disorder is strongly _________
Lithium
__________ is the most common treatment for bipolar disorder. It acts as a mood stabilizer.
drug compliance
How well patients take their medication as prescribed. Those with bipolar disorder don't often want to take Lithium because of its side effects
Electroconvulsive therapy
Treatment used as a last resort only, however it is still safe. This treatment is preformed under anesthesia and muscle relaxants.
Suicide
purposefully killing oneself
suicide attempts
An attempt to kill oneself that does not result in death
suicidal ideation
Thoughts about suicide
ask
it is often best to ____ the person if they have have suicidal intentions. This will rarely "plant" the idea in their head and will more than likely stop the person from doing it if they had planned on it.
Double depression
Having both dysthymia and Major depressive disorder. Usually dysthymia happens first and a major depressive episode occurs. Usually the major depressive episode is cured but the dysthymia is still present, threatening relapse
Psychological autopsy
a profile of the mental functioning of someone who committed suicide
Seasonal affective disorder
A type of depression that tends to occur during the winter months
1
Bipolar __ disorder. Major depressive episodes alternates with full manic episodes. Suicide is common.
2
Bipolar __ disorder. Major depressive episodes alternates with hypomanic episodes
Cyclothymic disorder
the symptoms of this disorder are even less than that of dysthymic disorder, yet patients tend to be in one mood state or the other for longer periods of time.
Altruistic suicide
killing oneself for the sake of another
Egoistic suicide
suicide committed when person feels that they're alone
Anomic suicide
person feels very confused in a new role that they have recently developed
Fatalistic suicide
suicide that occurs when the person feels high oppression from another