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whole review now. not every term, some are pretty obvious and self explanatory.
Terms in this set (114)
to discourage attack through the threat of retaliation.(elements of deterrence are severe conflict, assumption of rationality, retaliatory threat, unacceptable damage, credibility, stability
Mutually Assured Destruction
when both sides use nuclear weapons, everyone gets annihilated
First strike capability
ability to attack your enemy first with nuclear weapons
Second strike capability
ability to retaliate a nuclear attack with more nukes/
discouraging attack through the threat of retaliation for another state (US and West Germany in Cold War)
Resolve and the problem of credibility
Don't back down on your claims. JFK made public statements about Cuba such that he would be held more accountable and increase his credibility
Axis of evil (and nuclear proliferation)
Iran, Iraq, and North Korea. Iraq doesn't have nukes, they get invaded. N. Korea has nukes, they get tough diplomacy. Iran sees that and thinks they should get nukes, but US doesn't want this because it could increase Iranian-Israeli tensions.
Northern Alliance (in Afghanistan)
was a military front that came to formation in late 1996 after the Taliban took over Kabul. The Northern Alliance fought a defensive war against the Taliban government. They received support from Iran, Russia, Turkey, India, Tajikistan and others, while the Taliban were backed by al-Qaeda. The Northern Alliance was mostly made up of ethnic Tajiks, but later included Uzbeks, Hazaras, and Pashtuns. The Taliban government was dominated by Pashtuns with other groups being the minority. After the US-led invasion and establishment of the Karzai administration in late 2001, the Northern Alliance broke apart and different political parties were formed.
Attrition (as a terrorist strategy)
Simply the will to keep pushing and outlast your enemy by war of wills and continuing to attack.
Provocation (as a terrorist strategy)
taunting the adversary and provoking them into conflict
Intimidation (as a terrorist strategy)
Overthrowing a reign of governments who are willing to comply of terror of what the terrorists may do if orders are not followed by said government
Spoiling (as a terrorist strategy)
Sabotaging the peace
Outbidding (as a terrorist strategy)
Competition between terrorist groups seeking support
Ticking time bomb scenario (and torture)
"Suppose that a perpetrator of an imminent terrorist attack, that will kill many people, is in the hands of the authorities and that he will disclose the information needed to prevent the attack only if he is tortured. Should he be tortured?"
Slow fuse terrorist threat (and torture)
When we have captured terrorist enemy but the attack IS NOT IMMINENT, meaning its not soon to come. the questions is torture permissible or not depends on which ethical framework you analyze this question though
Taiwan and the One China policy
the policy or view that there is only one state called "China", despite the existence of two governments that claim to be "China." As a policy, this means that countries seeking diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China (PRC) must break official relations with the Republic of China (ROC) and vice versa. Hence, all the countries recognizing the ROC recognize it as the sole legitimate representative of all of China and not just the island of Taiwan and other islands which it controls.Similarly, all states that recognize the PRC either recognise the PRC as the legitimate representative of Taiwan or acknowledge the PRC's views on the matter.
Trade liberalization (as international institution)
GATT rules grants access to foreign companies access to domestic market. This acceptance is needed for the spread of international trade.
Treaty of Westphalia
(1648) Established the norm of state sovereignty
Demonstration effect (and diffusion)
Conditions in a neighboring country are assumed (rightly or wrongly) to be similar. Resistance to change perceived to be less than presumed
Emulation effect (and diffusion)
Strategies deemed effective in similar contexts are copied
Network effect (and diffusion)
Conscious spread of strategies through networks of activists and to other countries
Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act (RTAA) (1934)
Institutional change that moved responsibility for trade policy from Congress to Executive Branch. Gave the president the right to regulate international right to the president for a short period of time. The president offered tariff cuts if the other country also did this. Congress authorized the president for a fixed period of time to negotiate bilateral trade deals with other countries in which principle of reciprocity guided both to mutual reduction in tariffs.
Bretton Woods economic order
Emerges in final stages of WWII (1944): US supports creation of international organization to ensure economic growth through international trade. Key organizations that emerged from it include: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT/WTO), International Monetary Fund, and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (becomes World Bank)
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)/World Trade Organization (WTO)
Multilateral international organization designed to support reduction of trade barriers on a reciprocal basis among states. Provided a series of rules that would guide negotiation rounds during the Cold War
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Pool of capital created by member countries to provide international liquidity. Limit exchange rate fluctuations. Help governments in exchange rate crisis stabilize reserves with loans
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/World Bank
United Nations international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programs.
federal bank purchases government securities or other securities from the market in order to lower interest rates and increase the money supply
often anonymous stock, bond, and currency traders and multinational investors, connected by screens and networks (Friedman, 113)
The Short-Horn Cattle
Investors who buy stocks, bonds, future contracts, currencies, derivatives, options, and hedge funds.
The Long-Horn Cattle
Multinational corporations that engage in direct foreign investment by building factories and utilities and supporting local corporations in so-called "strategic alliances" and "local partnerships."
Poverty cycle (and development)
low incomes -> low savings -> low investment -> low productivity -> low incomes ...
Weak property rights (and development)
without strong property rights, individuals and firms have no incentive to accumulate capital and invest in domestic economy
a state where the rents (income) are paid by foreign actors, where they accrue directly to the state, and where "only a few are engaged in the generation of this rent (wealth), the majority being only involved in the distribution or utilization of it.
Oil as a fixed asset
meaning that it is literally grounded and can be taken over easily by adversary territorial gains. This territorial take-over is a result of oil's profitability.
Oil as a lucrative asset
meaning that oil can have immense monetary gains that can be useful for funding other domestic or international projects
Clauswitz and total war
Total war is a war so terrible, both sides are assured massive amounts of destruction, that the war itself no longer serves the purpose of protecting the state.
Pessimist, risk, thinks newly proliferated states want to use their nookies.
Optimist. Limits aggression. Tremendous caution during international contingencies. Second strike capabilities
Lieber & press
too risky to give nukes to terrorists
terrorism definition can't divorce means from goals. Decide which actors to support battle against and ignore. Doesn't care about defining them as terrorists. Goals & means more important.
terrorist not rational
Kydd and Walter
terrorists are rational and use violence because it works towards their goals
terrorism serious threat and the number of deaths is not a concern. Psychological effects important
Mueller & stewart
claim overreaction to terrorist threats. Trade off b/w community & individual
doesn't allow torture by law. But actors can make choice and be ready to live w/ consequences
won't define torture
torture is wrong. Don't stoop to their level
against all torture.
case for intentions. Utilitarian. Different definitions of soldier & terrorist & terrorist w/ info
promote china leadership and responsibilities. Peaceful transition. US should manage transition.
china dangerous. Nuclear crisis. Lots of tension. Mutual econ interests and resistance of nuclear weapons makes conflict less likely. Opportunity for crisis. US can't talk about adjusting global leadership. Uncertainty in China's internal politics
US entry to international org solves political problems at international level
"Keep Russians out, Americans in, and Germans down."
against nato expansion: Loss of mission, NATO is not relevant, Threatens and antagonizes russia, Perpetuates the problem of European shirking and American burden
To discourage attack through threat of retaliation (nuclear weapons), may not be able to prevent attack, but can retaliate to where you don't want to attack in the FIRST PLACE
Total war is a war so terrible, where both sides are assured massive amounts of destruction, that the war itself no longer serves the purpose of protecting the state
problem of credibility in nuclear deterrence
capability, resolve, allies protection
What are the issues surrounding a deal between the U.S. and Iran regarding Iran's nuclear weapons program
Iran's nuclear weapons program argues that this program was designed for peaceful energy purposes. Iran's adversaries (mainly US and Israel) do not believe that is what it was solely designed for
complications with defining terrorism (byford)
obvious problems with following definitions:
*tying means and goals - byford says to do this.
Why is President Obama considering going around Congress to strike a deal with Iran
Congress is skeptical that Iran will abide by the terms of any deal, which is likely to include a tough inspections regime, allowing inspectors into nuclear weapon sites and watching what is going on in there.
interests first, goals second, means third
How are terrorist groups different from other types of threats to U.S. national interests
power difference, goals, deterrence, strategies, geographic location
key attributes of Afghanistan campaign
sought to topple the Taliban, install a gov more friendly to american interests, deny al qaeda a staging ground for future attacks on the US
Abrams (are terrorists rational)
Kydd and Walter (are terrorists rational)
terrorism is a serious threat to the US because they could have nukes or be psychologically damaging
hegemonic stability theory
indicates that the international system is more likely to remain stable when a single nation-state is the dominant world power, or hegemony
How is the free rider problem solved in domestics politics
taxing to pay for the military, to build and maintain roads, and to build legal infrastructure etc. under the threat of having repercussions if there is no compliance to this rule.
central claim of hegemonic stability theory as it pertains to the economic system
concentration of economic capacity or power in one state increases the likelihood that the international econ system will be open, therefore more international trade and econ growth for all states
security variant of hegemonic stability theory
hegemon can incentivize efforts of other countries to counter emerging threats to the international security environment by leading the coalition
power transition theory
Structure of international politics set by rise AND fall of leading powers. shift in distribution heightens risk of war.
declining states might launch a war to prevent the rise of a new hegemon because rising state cannot commit to preserve status quo system and the benefits it generates
why was john stewart wrong
because the UN serves as an organization of rules that guide interactions among states.. as a strong source of legitimacy for controversial policies.
central dilemmas of NATO from both the European and American sides
Europe: won't fund own military - still current day issue of neglecting self-defense, they shirk their responsibilities and rely too heavily on the US, which carries all the burdens
American: we get lots of benefits, but it's still a HUGE burden to provide for everyone
Mearsheimer interview (how is ukraine thing our fault)
US has pursued a policy to peel away countries of Eastern Europe away from russian influence
Mearsheimer interview (Future of NATO)
if China continues to rise, it will turn economic might to military might. NATO will try to contain rising China, meaning taking attention away from Russia and focusing on China, might need to abandon Europe
Mearsheimer v obama
Obama : isis is threat, let's fight
Mearsheimer: not a threat. no winning strategy
three categories of "procedural minimal" conditions for democracy (Dahl)
Public Contestation, inclusion, democratic sovereignty
common arguments against democracy (Dahl)
inefficiency. but centralized power is worse!
democratic peace theory
Claims that military conflict (low levels, including threat to use force, and war) less likely between only two democratic states
central tenets of Wilsonianism
Democracy is superior to all other forms of government, Democracy is a universal value (even in a poor country), The US has a moral obligation to spread democracy.
Using military force has not been a good idea in enforcing democracy is the bottomline.
why has democracy become a world value (McFaul)
Democracy faces no viable alternatives since the end of Cold War, Elites even in authoritarian regimes justify their rule through a democratic lens, Mass support for democracy is high in all regions of the world
why does the democratic peace theory require rethinking
fighting when we make democracy happen, it's a post WW1 thing, you can have a democratic government that votes against the US.
think about VALUES of the regime, not their structure.
Three and a half revolutions of the state (Micklethwait and Woolridge)
1. Society accepts some restrictions on its freedoms to ensure public safety from external threats
2. Movement towards great efficiency in governance in the 19th century
3. Concerns about the plight of the poor and their disenfranchisement
3.5. Backlash against expansion of state authority
overall, critiquing western gov.
three reasons there arose a concern over failed states after 9/11
1. response to actual conditions
2. fad through social diffusion
3. fundamental reassessment of favored primacy
mazarr alternative to U.S. interventions and state-building missions
when US does reach out to deal with weak states the key themes are: PATIENCE, GRADUALISM, and TAILORED RESPONSES
Mathews reading, what forces contributed to the rise of transnational non-state groups
NGO's powered by new technologies with greater communications, Globalization and economic integration, Global challenges require international organizations
what two factors did he (Jason Brownlee) argue were most important in determining whether uprisings related to the Arab Spring actually toppled the government
1. Domestic and economic conditions determine the success of democracy
2. Hereditary monarchy and oil wealth are prominent factors in enabling authoritarian regimes to resist regime change
enables free trade within the partnership
What were the main components of the climate deal struck between the U.S. and China at the Asian summit?
agreement to control CO2 emissions. China needs to clean up their act, US is critical of deal because they don't believe china will follow through when WE (which we actually would) it would basically kill the coal industry.
What is comparative advantage
Focus on specialization in production of one good (where relative costs lower) and then trade to increase aggregate income.
can produce product in fewer labor hours
US significant shift to embrace free trade and power was shifted to executive branch
Multilateral international organization designed to support reduction of trade barriers on a reciprocal basis. Provided series of rules that would guide negotiating rounds during the cold war.
problem: can't enforce shit. later became WTO
Had institutionalized a dispute settlement mechanism (judicial means) with established procedures for filing grievances, investigating complaints, and punishing defection.
What are three important functions of money?
Medium of exchange: facilitates trade and specialization
Unit of account: means to measure value of things and compare different goods and services
Store of value: allows wealth/value to be held over time (saving and investment)
how do you choke inflation
slow economic activity by raising interest rates and surrender responsibility for monetary policy to unelected officials
as it grows, global economy needs more expansion of money supply to facilitate transactions, however get this expansion via great US government debt.
How long sustainable? Cannot run deficits indefinitely just like credit card company eventually cuts you off
obligations of wealthy Western countries and their citizens to the poor of the world (Peter signer)
the affluent should use their resources to save starving individuals up to the point of 'marginal utility' (i.e. when it involves sacrificing something of equal moral value).
arguments against alleviating global poverty
Foreign aid does not work and does not address the root problems of underdevelopment, no moral duty, obligations are not global (more local)
what factors drive US foreign aid allocations (Findley)
"The US doesn't have friends, it has interests and Rwanda [and its genocide] is not an interest" so US won't help
What does it mean that oil has "inelastic" demand and few substitute goods
Relatively inelastic in the short run: quantity demanded not responsive to shifts in price
why is demand for oil unique
Great Recession slows demand growth in developed world (US, Europe, and Japan)
Huge growth in developing world and BRIC countries (mostly China)
Moser used to drive to work even with the gas prices rising, he changes and took the bus to work because it was convenient and free, but it took that much change in order for him to change his habits
What is the resource curse
Domestic turmoil: Countries with economies dominated by natural resources tend to be more:
Prone to civil war
Aggressive toward neighbors
How might oil undermine democracy
states become rentier states. ie no taxes, it's all paid by oil!
How do lower oil prices affect the major players (shale vs middle eastern oil)
OPEC split. Saudi Arabia wants to protect market and punish shale by price war (driving prices down), Venezuela wants to prop prices up because they're worried
oil price drop effect on russia
The Russian economy is tanking. You can see this in the devaluation of Russian ruble. Spills over to surrounding states
What are the three different distributional struggles related to the problem of global warming
Within countries: e.g. business v. consumers in the US
Between countries: China v. US/Europe
Across generations: current v. future inhabitant
What is the tragedy of the commons
" Factory that dumps pollutants into river, people get sick but depend on factory for jobs. Factory adopts alternative energy source to cuts emissions, becomes less profitable, out of business"
What is the Coase theorem
in the absence of negotiating coasts, private agents will bargain to an efficient outcome as long as PROPERTY RIGHTS ARE WELL DEFINED (for common resources). The important part of this theorem is defining property rights.
According to Rodrik, what is the political trilemma
The political trilemma is you can only have 2 (and with globalization only 1) of the following:
international economic integration
or one government of democracy
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