Final Review BIO 181
Terms in this set (66)
What is the membrane property that helps ensure the diffusion of glucose into a cell that has a high energy need?
A high number of carrier proteins specific for glucose
Which of the following statements regarding diffusion is false?
Diffusion occurs when particles spread from areas where they are less concentrated to areas where they are more concentrated
If there are 22 sister chromatids in a cell, how many centromeres are there?
22 (sister chromatid incorporates both strands, if it just said 22 chromatids, it would have been 11)
Graph depicting the cell cycle and the amount of DNA in the nucleus:
1. In the figure above, which number represents the point in the cell cycle during which the chromosomes are replicated?
2. In the figure above, mitosis is represented by which numbered part(s) of the cycle?
Which of the following are primarily responsible for cytokinesis in plant cells but not in animal cells?
Single-stranded RNA can fold back on itself, creating three-dimensional structures such as tRNA. The folds are stabilized by ______ bonds.
Which of the following is NOT a function of RNA studied in class?
Act as a template to form DNA
Why is it that RNA can catalyze reactions but DNA cannot?
The sugar of RNA is much more reactive than the sugar of DNA
Which of the enzymes removes the RNA nucleotides from the primer and adds equivalent DNA nucleotides to the 3' end of Okazaki fragments?
DNA Polymerase I
If the left end of the daughter strand indicated by the arrow in the figure is being synthesized in one continuous piece, then
The DNA at point C is being synthesized in one continuous piece
Telomere shortening puts a limit on the number of times a cell can divide. Research has shown that telomerase can extend the life span of cultured human cells. How might adding telomerase affect cellular aging?
Telomerase eliminates telomere shortening and retards aging
What type of interaction is directly responsible for the formation of secondary structure?
Hydrogen bonds between side chains of amino acids
Upon chemical analysis, a particular polypeptide was found to contain 85 amino acids. How many peptide bonds are present in this protein?
The "R" groups of amino acids have certain properties and allows for amino acids to be organized into all of the following groups EXCEPT _____
Positively charged and hydrophobic
Polypeptide chains have a/an ____ and a/an_____ end
N terminus; C terminus
The chemical reaction illustrated in the above figure OH H releasing a water molecule
Results in a peptide bond
Molecular chaperones _____
Are involved in proper protein folding
Which of the following processes includes all others?
Table depicting the length of time spent in each phase of the cell cycle by cells of 3 eukaryotic organisms designated beta, delta, and gamma:
1. The best conclusion concerning delta (G1 100; 0 S, G2, M)
2. The double-stranded DNA molecule contains a total of 120 purines (A, G) and 120 pyrimidines (T, C, U). This DNA molecule could be composed of ____
1. G0 phase (G zero phase)
2. 120 thymine and 120 adenine molecules
What does it mean when we say the genetic code is unambiguous?
A single codon can specify the addition of only one amino acid
Suppose that in one cell in your skin, chromosome 14 and chromosome 18 exchange genetic material. The change is inherited by subsequent cells. This is an example of a ____ mutation.
Translation requires ____.
mRNA, tRNA, rRNA
Which of the following is TRUE regarding gene expression?
different tissues within an organism express different genes
In a wild-type strain of fruit flies, the length of a gene from the start to the stop codon is 2,000 DNA can be experiment indicated that the mRNA molecule transcribed from this gene is much shorter (only 1,2000) most likely explanation for this?
there are introns in the DNA that were cut out of the mRNA
What is the function of the CCA sequence at the 3' end of tRNA.
it attaches to the amino acid
The wobble hypothesis states that non-standard base pairs are possible in the _____ position of a codon.
Once a polypeptide has been formed between the amino acid attached to the tRNA in the P site and the amino acid associated with the tRNA in the A site, what occurs next?
Homologous chromosomes ____
carry information for the same traits
In a typical human body cell, how many sex chromosomes are there?
After telophase I of meiosis, the chromosomal makeup of each daughter cell is _____
haploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of two chromatids
Genetic variation is accomplished by all but one of the following. Which is it?
the events of meiosis II
Which of the following statements about independent assortment and segregation is correct?
the law of independent assortment requires describing two or more genes relative to one another
Two true-breeding (pure line) stocks of pea plants are crossed. One parent has red, axial flowers and the other has white, terminal flowers; all F1 individuals have red, axial flowers. The genes for flower color and location assort independently. If 160 F2 offspring resulted from the cross, approximately how many of them would you expect to have red, terminal flowers?
Hemophilia is a sex-linked recessive gene that causes a blood disorder. What are the chances that a child ...man and a heterozygous woman will have hemophilia?
What are the 5 characteristics of living organisms?
1. acquire and use energy
2. made up of cells
3. heredity encoded in genes (information)
5. members of a population so they can evolve
What is the cell theory?
All organisms are made up of cells (Hooke, Leeuwenhoek) and cells come from preexisting cells (Virchow)
What are the 2 characteristics that must be present for natural selection to occur?
1. heritable traits (passed to offspring)
1. limited by the surface area-to-volume ratio (as a cell grows larger, the SA:V ratio decreases
2. small organisms have large SA/V ratios, large animals have smaller SA/V ratios
3. larger organisms do not have larger cells
Adaptations that increase SA
flattened structures, folded surfaces with projections, highly branched structures
Protection and structural support
Storage of oils, carbs, water, and toxins; coloration
Regulates what passes in and out of the cell
Carries out cellular respiration and creates ATP
Digestion and recycling
Has ribosomes; protein synthesis
Break down fatty acids, ethanol, & other compounds
Synthesis of lipids
Production of ATP and sugars via photosynthesis
Control center, ribosome assembly, genetic info
What makes a lipid unsaturated?
a double bond between two carbons, saturated fats have more hydrogens than unsaturated fats
Where is DNA found?
nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplast
produces ribosomal subunits
Structure of plasma membrane
hydrophilic, polar head and a hydrophobic, nonpolar tail
What are the 2 laws of thermodynamics?
1. Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be transferred or transformed
2. the total entropy always increases in an isolated system
What is the difference between Endergonic and Exergonic reactions?
Endergonic: requires energy, not spontaneous, products have higher potential energy than reactants
Exergonic: energy is released, spontaneous, products have lower potential energy than reactants
What is the difference between an electron donor and an electron receptor?
Electron donors are molecules that are going to be oxidized
Electron receptors are molecules that are going to be reduced
What is the difference between an oxidation and a reduction reaction?
Oxidation: molecules are going to lose electrons
Reduction: molecules are going to gain electrons
How do enzymes catalyze reactions?
1. orient substrates properly
2. lower activation energy stabilizing the reaction
Cellular Respiration steps
2. Pyruvate Oxidation
3. Citric Acid Cycle
4. Electron Transport Chain/Oxidative Phosphorylation
1. Light Dependent/Capturing Reaction (Photosystem I produces NADPH, Photosystem II produces ATP and Oxygen)
2. Calvin Cycle (Produces G3P that is used to produce carbohydrates. 3 phases: fixation phase, reduction phase, regeneration phase)
behaves in 2 ways: as a wave, characterized by its wavelength and as a particle called photons
molecules that absorb photons at specific wavelengths...Chlorophyll absorbs red and blue light, while reflecting green light
Antenna Complex, Reaction Center
3 paths of an excited electron
3. Energy Reaches an Electron in the Reaction Center
Cellular Respiration definition
a process that oxidizes glucose into CO2 in the presence of oxygen