Terms in this set (57)
Define Conceptual Knowledge
Knowledge that enables us to recognize objects and events and to make inferences about their properties
What is a concept?
The mental representation of a class or individual. The meaning of objects, events, and abstract ideas
What is a category?
All possible examples of a particular concept
The process by which things are placed in categories
Define the Definitional Approach to Categorization
We can decide whether something is a member of a category by determining whether a particular objects meets the definition of a category
Give an example of something the definitional approach to categorization is good for
Does the definitional approach to categorization work for man-made objects?
No. A chair might not necessarily have 4 legs.
Does the definitional approach to categorization work for natural objects?
No. There are features of natural objects that fit into more than one category (i.e. leaves can be on a flower, or a tree, or a bush)
What is family resemblance?
Things in a particular category resemble one another in a number of ways
Who proposed family resemblance?
Ludwig Wittgenstein (1953)
Which works better for most objects: definitional approach or family resemblance?
What is the prototype approach to categorization?
Membership in a category is determined by comparing the object to a prototype that represents the category
What is a prototype?
A "typical" member of a category
What happens when an item's characteristics overlap with characteristics of another item?
These items are said to have a high family resemblance. This is the case for a sofa and a chair (4 legs, used for sitting, generally cushioned)
Is there a relationship between family resemblance and prototypicality?
Yes. As demonstrated by Rosch and Mervis.
What is the sentence verification technique?
Subjects are presented with statements and are asked to answer "yes" if they think the statement is true and "no" if they think it isn't.
What has been found in sentence verification technique studies?
Subjects respond faster for objects that are high in prototypicality than they did for objects that are low in prototypicality.
Who conducted sentence verification techinque studies?
Edward Smith and coworkers (1974)
What is the typicality effect?
The ability to judge highly prototypical objects more rapidly
True or False: Prototypical objects are named first
What is priming?
Priming occurs when presentation of one stimulus facilitates the response to another stimulus that usually follows closely in time. (think classical conditioning)
True or false: Prototypical objects are affected more by priming.
Describe Rosch's Priming Experiment.
Subject's heard a prime, which was the name of a color ("green"). Two seconds later they saw a pair of colors side by side and indicated by pressing a key as quickly as possible, whether the two colors were the same or different.
What were the results of Rosch's Priming Experiment?
When subjects heard the word "green" they judged two patches of primary green as being the same more rapidly than two light patches of green.
What is the exemplar approach to categorization?
Involves determining whether an object is similar to other objects. However, whereas the standard for the prototype approach is a single "average" member of the category, the standard for the exemplar approach involves many examples.
What is an exemplar?
Actual members of the category that a person has encountered in the past
What is an advantage of the exemplar approach?
By using real examples, it can more easily take into account atypical cases
Which approach do we use: prototype or exemplar?
Which approach is used in early learning: prototype or exemplar?
As we initially learn about a category, we may average exemplars into a prototype
Which approach is used in later learning: prototype or exemplar?
Exemplar. After we develop prototypes, we start to take exemplars into account much more
What is hierarchical organization?
Larger, more general categories are divided into smaller, more specific categories, creating a number of levels of categories.
What is the superordinate level?
This is the global level of categories. It is the larger, more general groups of categories (like furniture)
What is the basic level of categories?
This is the second tier (or middle tier) of categories (like table: below furniture, but above coffee table)
What is the specific level of categories?
This is the lowest tier. It is the most precise level of categories (like kitchen table, coffee table).
Which level of category is "psychologically special?" Why?
The basic level. Global loses too much information. Specific categories results in little gain of information.
What were the results of the bird experiment of categorization?
Experts responded by specifying the birds' species but the nonexperts responded by saying "bird." The experts had learned to pay attention to features of birds that nonexperts were unaware of.
What were the implications of the bird experiment of categorization?
In order to fully understand how people categorize objects, we need to consider not only the properties of the objects but also the learning and experience of the people perceiving those objects.
Who conducted the bird experiment of categorization?
James Tanaka and Marjorie Taylor (1991)
What is the Semantic Network Approach?
It proposes that concepts are arranged into networks
Who was the semantic network approach pioneer?
Ross Quillian (1967)
What is a "node"?
It is a point on a semantic network map which represents a concept
What is a cognitive economy?
A way of storing shared properties just once at a higher-level node
Where is the "start point" of the semantic network approach?
The bottom nodes. Then you move up to find more information.
Do objects in the semantic network represent a structure in the brain?
No. It is only concerned with how concepts and their properties are associated in the mind
Does the semantic network create more time to associate two concepts that are further apart?
True or false: statements that required further travel from "canary" resulted in longer reaction times.
Define Spreading Activation.
Activity that spreads out along any link that is connected to an activated node
How is priming related to spreading activation?
Additional concepts that receive activation become primed so they can be retrieved from memory more easily.
Who designed the lexical decision task?
David Meyer and Roger Schvanevelt (1971)
What was the outcome of the lexical decision task?
There was a faster reaction time for words that were closely associated than for words that were not.
What is the typicality effect?
Reaction times for statements about an object are faster for more typical members of a category than for less typical members.
Who proposed connectionism?
James McClelland and David Rumelhart
What is connectionism?
An approach to creating computer models for representing cognitive processes
What is another term for connectionism?
Parallel distributed processing (PDP)
What are input units?
Units activated by stimuli from the environment (or stimulator)
What are hidden units?
They receive signals from input units and send them to output units.
What is a connection weight?
It determines how signals sent from one unit either increase or decrease the activity of the next unit. These weights correspond to what happens at a synapse that transmits signals from one neuron to another.