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PDX : Male GU
Terms in this set (75)
Loss of diamond shaped pubic hair distribution in males is caused by too much estrogen, give three reasons for the lower amounts.
1) Liver disease
2) Pituitary problems
3) Testicle problems
Accumulation of bacteria, urine, and cellular debris underneath the foreskin, can result in irritation/inflammation
True or False : To examine patient for dischange, you may have to ask the male to milk down his discharge.
True, doctor does NOT do this.
True or False : Palpation of the scrotum is done between the thumb and index/middle finger, and feel for hard areas with or without contour changes.
These are located superiorly and posterolaterally, considered more spaghetti-like
True or False : If a mass transilluminates in the scrotum, it is not cancer.
False, solid masses do not. If it transilluminates, it is most likely a hydrocele or spermatocele.
True or False : If the questionable mass is not attached to the testes, it isn't cancer.
True or False : To palpate for a hernia, you direct you finger up and medial in the direction of the inguinal ligament. If no mass is encountered, have the patient cough.
False; you direct your finger up and lateral.
True or False : Upon palpating a hernia, an indirect hernia strikes the fingertip, while a direct hernia strikes the finger at a 90 degree angle.
True or False : Indirect hernias occur more commonly than direct hernias.
True or False : Indirect hernias are protrusion of the abdominal contents through the side of the inguinal tube usually in a region superior to the canal.
False ; this is a direct hernia
True or False : Bowel sounds are present in an indirect hernia
Protrusion of the abdominal contents through the femoral canal, occurs more often with women than men.
True or False : The best patient position for male rectal exam is standing, flexed over a waist high table with feet internally rotated to spread the buttocks.
Explain the four steps of a Digital Rectal Examination.
1) Use well lubricated gloved finger
2) Place at anal opening and wait for reflex closure to relax
3) Ask patient to bear down
4) Slowly introduce your finger the entire length
True or False : The prostate is palpable posteriorly and is evaluated for size, tenderness, and hard nodules.
False, it is palpable anteriorly.
Pain with urination with inflamed urethra, sometimes caused by an STD
Tightness of the foreskin that results in an inability to retract it, caused by adhesions of the prepuce to the underlying glans
Inability to pull the foreskin forward from a retracted position, glans is usually painful and swollen
Unwanted and sometimes painful erection
Painful ulceration of the penis with swollen inguinal nodes, can be caused by some chlamydia infections.
Inflammation of the testes, caused by mumps and other viruses
Inflammation of the epididymis, usually caused by an STD
Ventral curvature of the penis, congenital anomaly caused by a restrictive band of tissue between the meatus and the glans.
Congenital defect in which the urinary meatus opens on the ventral aspect of the penis.
Congenital defect in which the urinary meatus opens on the dorsum of the penis.
True or False : Testicular atrophy bilaterally is usually hormonal while unilaterally is due to inflammation or trauma.
Inability to obtain or maintain an erection.
Time between the normal loss of erection after ejaculation and the time required before another erection can occur.
Patient presents with a painless oval or round penile sore with a central ulceration. What does this suggest?
Syphilitic chancre (Syphilis)
True or False : Testicular tumors tend to be malignant
True (occur in males 18-35 most commonly)
Medical term for an undescended testis. What is the significance?
Cryptorchism, increased risk of cancer later.
Non-tender serous fluid mass in the layered hallow membrane adjacent to testis, usually due to irritation.
Painless fluid filled epididymal mass
Epididymal cyst (Spermatocele)
Inflammation of the epididymis, usually caused by an infection.
Patient presents with anal pain, and you notice longitudinal tears near the pectinate line. Diagnosis?
Rectal/Anal spasm characterized by pain and sensation of urgency to use bathroom. Local inflammatory conditions may be present.
Patient presents with loose bloody stools. What do you suspect?
Ulcerative colitis is the most common cause
Patient presents with dilated hemorrhoidal veins, worse with high intraabdominal pressure or vascular obstruction. Diagnosis?
Secondary skin changing from scratching, usually from severe itching about the anus.
A fistula or pit in the sacral region, contains hair which may act as a foreign body irritant producing chronic inflammation.
If there is bright red blood in the stool, what conditions are you considering? Name 2
Hemorrhoids, ulcerative colitis, colon cancer
Patient exhibits dark stool with blood present. What conditions are you considering? Name 2
Gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer
Name two causes of fecal incontinence
Grand mal seizures, cauda equina lesions, advanced diabetes mellitus
Any mass of tissue that bulges or projects outward or upward from the normal surface.
What are the two types of rectal polyps and describe them.
Broad base = sessile
Pedunculated = polyp on a stalk
What is the second most common malignancy effecting both sexes? Greatest risk is over 50 years old.
Colon Cancer hard palpable masses
Increased mass of the prostate may increasing obstruct the urethra, this is usually caused by BPH. What does BPH stand for?
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
The most common malignant transformation in men
Inflammation of the prostate usually by an STD that worked its way back through the vas deferens
True or False : Upper urinary tract infects extend from the penis/vagina to the bladder
False, bladder to kidney is upper UTI
Patient complains of constant pain at the costovertebral angle and flank. What are you thinking?
Kidney Parenchymal pain from distention of renal capsule.
Patient exhibits waves of pain in the flank, groin, and testicle. The pain comes and goes. What is your suspicion?
Ureteral Pain (Colic)
Female patient has high frequency, urgency and pain with voiding her bladder. She has been sexually active for a while. What do you suspect?
Bladder inflmmation (cystitis) from E. Coli
Blood in the urine
What are some benign causes of blood in urine?
Urolithiasis, infection, glomerulonephritis
What are some malignant causes of blood in urine?
Bladder cancer, kidney cancer
Increased rate of urine production
Excess amounts of glucose in the urine suggests what?
Absence of urine production
Inadequate production and secretion of urine, usually less than 400 ml in 24/hrs
Excessive urination at night
Difficulty, pain, or burning sensation with urination
Presence of white blood cells (pus) in urine
Involuntary urination, usually during sleep hours, most common in childhood.
Involuntary leakage of urine
Irritant dermatitis occuring between folds or juxtaposed surfaces of the skin
True or False : If lymph nodes are unilaterial, painful, and enlarged nodes, you should think cancer.
False, if they are hard and non-tender, you should suspect cancer
A soft highly infectious nonsyphilitic venereal ulcer of the genital region, caused by haemophilus ducreyi. Discharge from the penis is usually clear.
The most common sexually transmissible disease, causes nonspecific urethritis in men.
Painful clustered vesicles that crust later, a recurrent viral disease caused by the herpes simplex virus
Profuse purulent discharge from the penis, usually pale in color, suggests what? Also known as the clap!
STD characterized by a primary lesion that begins at the site of infection after an interval of 10-30 days.
Secondary syphilitic eruption of flat-topped papules, occuring in groups covered by a necrotic layer of epithelial cells. They secrete a seropurulent fluid.
Condyloma Lata of Syphilis
Due to sexual contact with infection by human papilloma virus, patient presents with a contagious projecting warty growth on external genitals.
Venereal Warts (Condyloma Acuminatum)
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