221 terms

urban and enviro


Terms in this set (...)

Copenhagen's "City Bikes"
The world's first organized large-scale bike sharing program. Specifically designed, put on public streets; use like a shopping cart. Put in a coin, use the bike, return the bike, get your coin back. Cost of bike is paid for by ads on the wheels. Add an element of color and flavor to the city. Program was abolished in October 2012.
Boulder's "Spokes for Folks"
Largest, and most successful to date, public bike program. Bikes kept out all year then collected in late fall, because of the harsh winter. Bikes are donated, repaired, and maintained. If someone wants a bike permanently, Jan Ward (coordinator) will find him or her one; that's one of the main reasons that the program continues to work out.
Paris Vélib' bike system
Bicycle rental program in Paris, France. Launched in 15 July 2007. Ten thousand bikes were introduced to the city with 750 rental stations, about 1 every 300 metres. It is the third-largest bicycle system in the world. The system has a membership fee to be able to rent the bikes. The first 30 minutes of a trip are free, for each subsequent 30 mins the person pays one euro. The system works through a credit card/Pins instead of paper money or coins.
Carfree Housing (e.g. Vauban)
Most of the roads in Vauban are crescents and cul-de-sacs, which reduce the number of roads running through the neighborhoods. In contrast, there are multiple walking/biking paths that provide easy access to any part of the village. Most of the residential streets are described as "free from parking spaces." Vehicles are allowed to go down the streets at a walking pace to pick up and deliver, but not to park
High-Speed Rail
These include high speed traditional rail and magnetic levitation. It is a type of passenger rail transport that operates at significantly faster speeds. It allows for faster more efficient travel, also creating another incentive to use public transportation. One answer to reducing our ecological footprint. Speeds between 170-210 km/hr. European innovation includes high speed rail having its own track, instead of sharing with freight train. When you invest in high speed rail, it tends to push investments into local transits as well. In the Netherlands, Germany, etc it has shown to increase efficiency in local transit as well (ICE in Germany). High speed rail in Spain is another example. Transrapid in Shanghai is an example.
Magnetic Levitation trains ("MagLev")
Utilizes magnetic fields to lift the train from the tracks. The magnetic fields also serve to propel and stop the train. By reducing most of the friction, maglev has the potential to become the fastest, most efficient method of transportation. Unfortunately, it is more expensive to build and maintain than traditional rail. Maglev trains move more smoothly and somewhat more quietly than wheeled mass transit systems (can bypass friction, require less maintenance).
Transit villages
Planned development around a transportation hub. One of the most common examples is development around rail stations. This can currently be found in Portland. Development has been concentrated along the metropolitan area express (MAX), a light rail. A primarily residential town that has some retail facilities near transit stations to make public transit convenient for residents; existing villages include Portland, OR, Miami, FL, and some places in NJ are working on becoming more of a transit village.
Tree Protection Programs; Tree Planting
Plans adopted by cities and jurisdictions within cities that protect, preserve, and encourage the planting of trees. A plan to reduce the amount of trees destroyed through development or economic purposes. If trees are cut down, many governments force a percentage of the amount of trees to be replanted either on site or at other designated areas. ex: Portland and the urban forestry management plan.
Green Bridge (London)
London. Landscaped bridge located in London. It connects two greenspaces and actually extends both of them together. Very similar to the south lawn project, except it utilizes more trees and biking pathways. A plan by Thomas Heatherwick to create a garden-topped bridge that spans the Thames river and to be completed by 2017, connects two green spaces and exteds them.
Green Streets
"A street that uses vegetated facilities to manage stormwater runoff at its source. It is a sustainable stormwater strategy. Can be a more effective way of managing stormwater than traditional overflow pipes. Currently it is used in Portland. A green street facility is a small rain garden that collects stormwater runoff from streets, they keep stormwater out of the sewer system and local streams, are important parts of the city's green infrastructure, help protect and improve the efficiency of the city's grey (pipe) infrastructure. Green street facilities help prevent sewer back-ups in basements and combined sewer overflows (CSOs) to the Willamette River, and they increase urban green space, improve air quality, replenish groundwater, and reduce air temperature. "
Green Alleys (as in Montreal, Chicago, San Francisco)
Alleys in cities that use recycled construction material, provide permeable streets that allow stormwater to run through to the ground, have higher albedo to reduce the urban heat island effect, etc. Chicago. Founded as a solutions to chicago's stormwater problem. Incorporates sustainable solutions such as permeable pavement, reflective surfaces to reduce heat energy, and recycled materials. This helps to filter the water, reduces the quantity of runoff, and recharges the ground water. For CDOT, green alleys are part of the "green infrastructure" movement.
Community Gardens
A single piece of land gardened by a collective group of people, Help to produce fresh produce, neighborhood improvement, and a sense of community. Victory gardens, post-WWII, were community gardens. Community gardens encourage an urban community's food security, allowing citizens to grow their own food or for others to donate what they have grown.
Community Forests (like Arcata's)
>700 acre forest owned by the community parks and recreation center of Arcata, CA (northern coastal CA), joined together smaller pieces of a forest east of the city, creates a continous park system, used for community education, recreation, wildlife habitat, and sustainable timber harvesting. Community forestry is an evolving branch of forestry whereby the local community plays a significant role in forest management and land use decision making by themselves in the facilitating support of government as well as change agents. Several hundred acres managed by the city, provides income, used to buy more land and sustain forests. "Community-connected forests"- new model of forest stewardship/ producer-consumer partnership. Peter Hayes, Citilogs.
City Farms (e.g. Perth city farm)
"Community run projects in urban areas which involve people working with animals and plants. Most rely heavily on volunteer labor. Essentially it is similar to the community Gardens, except it is a farm. It is also has a more educational aspect than simply producing produce as in the community gardens. Most city farms involve an education program. They allow for residents to interact with plants and animals and raise awareness of agriculture and farming for people who live in built-up areas.
Perth City Farm
Although some city farms have paid employees, most rely heavily on volunteer labour, and some are run by volunteers alone. Perth City Farm is located on the eastern edge of the Perth CBD on the site of a former scrap metal yard and a battery recycling plant. Remediated, the site has grown to become a Western Australian icon for environmental sustainability and community engagement; originated in 1994 (almost 20 years old). "
Eco-roofs; Extensive green rooftops
"Roof tops that are partially or completely covered with vegetation and a growing medium, extensive green roofs hold 10-5 pounds of vegetation per sq ft & are virtually self-sustainable, they only require maintenance once a year, The roofs extend roof lifetime, add insulation to a building, create additional useable space, and are a proven stormwater management tool. Whole roof covered with a shallow layer of dirt/ plants/ soil, typically a tarp or something underneath. Light-weight, compared to intensive.
Purpose of Eco roofs
serve several purposes for a building, such as absorbing rainwater, providing insulation, creating a habitat for wildlife, and helping to lower urban air temperatures and mitigate the heat island effect.
Stormwater management
"Anything associated with the planning, maintenance, and regulation of facilities which collect, store, or convey stormwater, including retention ponds, swales and wetlands, pervious materials, infiltration, and detention. Manages the quantity and quality of stormwater. Many methods are used to do this. They include: retention ponds, swales and wetlands, pervious materials, infiltration, and detention. One method is to use an eco-roof to collect and manage stormwater.
Traditional stormwater management design
has been focused on collecting stormwater in piped networks and transporting it off site as quickly as possible, either directly to a stream or river, to a large stormwater management facility (basin), or to a combined sewer system flowing to a wastewater treatment plant.
Low impact development (LID) Addresses Wastewater Concerns
variety of techniques, including strategic site design, measures to control the sources of runoff, and thoughtful landscape planning.
Industrial Symbiosis
"Sharing of services, utility, and by-product resources among industries in order to add value, reduce costs and improve the environment - material and energy exchanges between industries to reduce waste. Industrial symbiosis is a subset of industrial ecology, with a particular focus on material and energy exchange. Industrial ecology is a relatively new field that is based on a natural paradigm, claiming that an industrial ecosystem may behave in a similar way to the natural ecosystem wherein everything gets recycled. An association between two or more industrial facilities or companies in which the wastes or byproducts of one become the raw materials for another.
Industrial symbiosis can help companies
By : Reduce raw material and waste disposal costs, Earn new revenue from residues and byproducts, Divert waste from landfill and reduce carbon emissions, Open up new business opportunities"
"Bio-works" (Kolding, Denmark)
Kolding, Denmark. Point source water treatment plant that looks like a giant glass pyramid. Run-down set of houses was redeveloped for an ecological water treatment plant. The wastewater from the houses helps to feed plants, fish, and algae. Photovoltaic cells power the electricity for the pyramid. Wastewater from surrounding houses trickles down through the pyramid's ponds to end up purified and join the reed bed. The ponds inside the Bio-works grow plants and flowers for sale.
Roca 3 Power plant (Rotterdam)
In this system, extra heat and C02 is transferred from the power plant to nearby greenhouses where many plants are grown. It is a form of industrial symbiosis. Combined heating and power plant (CHP).
Kalundborg Eco-Industrial Complex (Denmark)
One of the most successful forms of industrial symbiosis. Centered around a coal fired power plant. Surplus heat is used to heat 3500 local homes and a nearby fish farm. Power plant steam is sold to a pharmaceutical manufacturer. Helps to produce a closed loop system and increase profits for all companies involved. An industrial symbiosis network located in Kalundborg, Denmark, in which companies in the region collaborate to use each other's by-products and otherwise share resources.
Stockholm Ecocycles Balancing Initiatives
Reduces the amount of industrial wastes in Swedish industrial processes. Intends to reduce the negative impact products have on the environment and human health. Reduces the amount of industrial wastes in Swedish industrial processes. Intends to reduce the negative impact products have on the environment and human health.
Circular Metabolism (of cities)
"Zero waste; nurtures and develops a symbiotic relationship between the city and its ""hinterland"". Helps to understand the sustainability of cities. Draws analogies with the metabolic processes of organisms. Analizes the inputs and outputs of cities. Through this analysis, the goal is to reuse a portion of the outputs in different section of the city, creating a loop. Oakland is an example of a circular metabolism city.
Hammarby Sjöstad, Stockholm
Example of a neighborhood with circular metabolism. Hammarby Sjostad is their test wastewater treatment plan. City undergoing transformation toward renewable and eco-friendly energy. The eco-cycle handles energy, waste, water and sewage for housing, offices and other commercial activities in Hammarby Sjöstad. The eco-cycle is also designed to act as a role model for the development of equivalent technological systems in big cities. Treating sewage and storm water locally, reducing water consumption, heavy focus on solar power. -- City built on existing brownfield, built near lake outside of Stockholm, all buildings to be twice as environmentally friendly as normal, lots of public transit and bike paths, renewable energy, development approaching sustainability, new ideas and processes implemented from the beginning of development, will be completed in 2015.
Oberlin Environmental Studies Building
"Every building functioning like a tree, city like a forest." A very sustainable building, has its own on-site wastewater treatment system, produces its own power with solar, used recycled products, constructed with natural materials, designed by McDounough (office in Cville). By reconsidering design assumptions for the future, the building operates on three fundamental principles of nature—eliminate the concept of waste, rely on natural energy flows, and honor diversity. In 2006, the site became a net energy exporter, producing 30 percent more energy than it needs to operate and sharing this excess energy with the community. (circular metabolism)
Constructed Wetlands for treating wastewater
Also called a wetpark, it is an artificial wetland created as a new or restored habitat for native and migratory wildlife, for anthropogenic discharge such as wastewater (greywater), stormwater runoff, or sewage treatment, or for land reclamation that is required mitigation due to losing natural areas from mining, refineries, etc. Natural wetlands act as a biofilter, removing sediments and pollutants such as heavy metals from the water, and constructed wetlands can be designed to emulate these features.
Greywater Recycling
recycling the wastewater from washing, showers, and baths into WC flushing, landscape irrigation, and constructed wetlands. Lower levels of contaminents; domestic greywater can be recycled directly within the home, garden or company and used either immediately or processed and stored. If stored, it must be used within a very short time or it will begin to putrefy due to the organic solids in the water. Recycled greywater of this kind is never safe to drink. Recycling can be done via mechanical or biological systems/ methods.
Living Machines
A brand of wetland treatment for wastewater that was started in Cville, system is used in Oberlin building, set up in levels of hydroponics, then dirt plants, with fish, snails, clams, etc underneath that do the final cleaning, provides a healthy system that is renewable and low energy that is completely sustainable to treat wastewater and allow for reuse. Signifies a shift from energy-intensive treatment. Hammarby Neighborhood, Stockholm, is also an example of a living machine.
Renewable Energy
Energy that comes from natural sources such as sun, wind, tides, water flow, etc., these methods are gaining large popularity, especially wind, large scale projects to power neighborhoods and buildings, or small scale to power individual lights or traffic signals, help create a more sustainable world, no carbon output. Comes from biomass, hydropelectric, geothermal, wind turbines, solar power, and biofuels.
Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD)
Owned by the local citizens, it provides power to Sacramento county, one of largest public owned utility companies, uses lots of hydroelectric power and also renewable energy, working to make improvements and reduce carbon output, provides help to teach about sustainability that its users can do to protect environment. It's one of the ten largest publicly owned utilities in the United States, generating the bulk of its power through natural gas and large hydroelectric generation plants.
Passive Solar Energy
Harnessing the sun's energy without wasting energy to pump or move air or water, can be solar panels that are fixed, skylights, solar chimneys, solar ventilation, or solar water heating like that used by running a pipe system on the roof, or even a solarium (sunroom). Collect, store and distribute solar energy; passive because it doesn't use mechanical or electrical devices. Heat in the winter and reject solar heat in the summer. Cause air movement for ventilation. Foundational element of ZEBs.
Energy-Balanced Homes; Zero-Energy Homes
Home with zero net energy consumption and zero carbon emissions, can be separate from the grid, create their own power on site through renewable sources, easier to do in more temperate climates, many ways to accomplish this but starts with the design, make use of climate of region, sun angles, winds, etc, use skylights and passive heating and cooling, many energy saving features. The zero net energy consumption principle is viewed as a means to reduce carbon emissions and reduce dependence on fossil fuels. The Moore House in Colorado is an example of a zero-energy home.
District Heating
System for distributing heating from one centralized location to multiple buildings and the area around the location, often steam such as the steam tunnel system at UVA, used for room heating and also water heating, significantly more efficient than multiple stand alone heating units, used in more dense areas, can use the off put from generating power to create heat for system. Heat is often obtained from a cogeneration plant burning fossil fuels, but more recently burning biomass. According to some research, district heating with combined heat and power (CHPDH) is the cheapest method of cutting carbon emissions, and has one of the lowest carbon footprints of all fossil generation plants. Being developed in Denmark.
Biomass Energy
Energy created from the use of biomass which is living or once living matter, like plant material or animal waste. Biofuels can be used to heat homes, run cars and buses, or generate electricity; biomass fuels often made from food wastes like vegetable oil, being refined into ethanolss or diesels. Algae fuels are also a type of biofuels, gaining more followers as oil prices continue to rise. Sustainable, low-carbon biomass can provide a fraction of the new renewable energy needed to reduce our emissions of heat-trapping gases like carbon dioxide to levels that should avoid the worst impacts of global warming. Biomass energy production involves annual harvests or periodic removals of crops, residues, trees or other resources from the land. These harvests and removals need to be at levels that are sustainable, i.e., ensure that current use does not deplete the land's ability to meet future needs, and also be done in ways that don't degrade other important indicators of sustainability.
Distributed Energy Systems
The idea of creating large amounts of electricity through multiple small sources, good because energy can be generated closer to where it is used, doesn't get as many transportation losses in grid, lends itself to be used with many renewable sources linked together, small-scale power generation technologies, many systems use combinations of solar panels, wind turbines, and vehicle-to-grid.
Photovoltaic Cells (PV's)
PVs: a method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity. PV cells are the cells that make up solar panels, take sunlight and convert them into electrical energy by the photovoltaic effect, used to create power from sunlight in many areas of the world, are rather expensive and inefficient leading to large footprint to gain a large amount of power, are often put on roofs of houses, many different types that can be used in thousands of applications from charging small devices to powering homes and automobiles. Many large PV plants under construction in the U.S., many of which are in California.
Relamping Berkeley Initiative
Telegraph Ave. - Plan taken on by Phillips that used their low-energy compact fluorescent bulbs to relamp many homes and businesses, the use of better lighting found a 45% reduction in power per block, showed that small steps taken by many can make a difference, sought to inform the public of steps they can take to lead a greener and more sustainable lifestyle. Shift: taking an urban block and changing it to provide energy-efficient lighting. It's a grassroots effort that's intended as a blueprint for energy conservation, illustrating how simple changes, such as switching to energy-efficient light bulbs, can result in dramatic savings.
Energy Star Homes (U.S. EPA Program)
ENERGY STAR is a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) voluntary program that helps businesses and individuals save money and protect our climate through superior energy efficiency; focus on greenhouse gas emission reduction. New homes can be certified as energy star if they use about 15% less power than a typically home, must include energy star appliances and take steps to ensure power savings such as extra insulation and better windows; are typically 20-30% more efficient than traditional homes. Energy Star certified homes have lower utility bills, enhanced performance and comfort, and are environmentally-friendly. All of the homes in Harmony, FL (energy-efficient living community) are Energy Star homes.
LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design)
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design. Run by the US Green Building Council (USGBC), not a government requirement, attain points for efficient and environmentally friendly design, construction, and material use, many new building are LEED certified, extends from offices to homes and apartments, shown to increase health of users and their productivity, becoming very popular throughout the US. Set of rating systems for green-certified buildings, homes and neighborhoods. Initially, many U.S. federal agencies and state and local governments incentivized or required the use of LEED certification. However, now four states (Alabama, Georgia, Maine, and Mississippi) have effectively banned the use of LEED in new public buildings. LEED is intended to help building owners and operators be environmentally responsible and use resources efficiently
Geothermal energy
Using the superheated water of the earth to create electricity, sustainable and environmentally friendly electricity production, can be used in individual home or on a larger scale, can be tanks buried in ground that pump water through home to heat or cool, or go deeper and use natural hot springs and steam, many uses and is again gaining momentum as people look for sustainable sources of power. Thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. Thermal energy is the energy that determines the temperature of matter. Geothermal power is cost effective, reliable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly, but has historically been limited to areas near tectonic plate boundaries. Recent technological advances have dramatically expanded the range and size of viable resources, especially for applications such as home heating, opening a potential for widespread exploitation
Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS)
Injects cold water deep into the ground where its pressure increase permeability through the rock, the hot water from the rock is then forced upwards through a borehole where it is used at the surface to create electricity, after this it is cool and re-injected to make a continuous loop, the system allows geothermal to be accomplished where it can not normally be done. Largest EGS system is demonstration plant in Cooper Basin, Australia.
Combined heat and Power (CHP)
Also called cogeneration. Creating heat and power at the same plant, from a single fuel source, such as: natural gas, biomass, biogas, coal, waste heat, or oil. Electric production creates some lost heat which can be used as heat for buildings in hot water form, requires centralized heat system, is more efficient as waste heat is used, often used in larger cities like NY (Manhatten) and Boston. All thermal power plants emit heat during electricity generation, which can be released into the natural environment through cooling towers, flue gas, or by other means. It's an integrated energy system. Hundertwasser's CHP plant in Vienna- less damaging, smaller-scale energy production.
Council House 2 (Melbourne)
Building owned by city of Melbourne, building is highly efficient, will use 85% less electricity than the Council House beside it, has its own natural gas combined heat and power on site that will reduce emissions, uses solar panels and reduces water waste. Six-star green certified in Australia, was the first to reach this; great showpiece of what proper design can do to reduce footprint. CH2 is meant to be a 'lighthouse project' for new building developments, aiming to influence future design to be more sustainable and efficient. Objectives for building design include greenhouse neutral and improving the overall employee wellbeing. Different strategies were used to do this; all were focused around sustainability. Infrastructure design features include ventilation stacks to channel air and provide shade, "wavy" concrete for the ceiling to maximize thermal mass capacity, and roof garden.
Plus-Energy homes (Vauban, Freiburg)
"Homes that create more energy than they use in a year, can sell back the power not used to the grid, do this through solar cells on the roof and passive solar lighting, example is to capture heat during the day in order to reduce the need to generate heat over night. This is achieved using large North and South facing window areas to allow sunlight to penetrate the structure, reducing the need for energy use from light bulbs district also has central heat system, citizens love having their homes and say it improves their way of life.An important part of the PlusEnergy approach that differentiates it from similar concepts is that the owner or tenant of a PlusEnergy building should be able to live and work comfortably in it without sacrificing lifestyle or normal living standards."
Solar Mallee Trees (Adelaide, Australia)
Tree-looking lights that use significantly less energy than they gather and store from the sun- they produce 7 times as much energy as they need to function, and send the energy back into the grid. Reduces green house gas emissions, equivalent to planting 6 real trees per year. Also function as public art; called Solar Mallees.
Solar Factory in Freiburg, Germany (Solar Fabrik)
Europe's first zero-emissions solar module factory; uses only renewable energy sources for electricity and heat. Have been producing with a net zero carbon footprint since 1998. Strive for high yield, efficiency, and durability; guaranteeing a safe investment and long-term profitability. Sustainability is their benchmark for long-term policy, they aim to advance the use of solar power worldwide. The physical building's (headquarter's) architecture is oriented to maximize solar power; ventilation system is natural air conditioning system. Their production facility has been relocated to the industrial zone in Freiburg.
Windspire (Mariah Power)
"Urban" wind turbines; on-site wind generation. They are thinner, shorter, and more streamlined that normal ones (spirally looking). Can use them at home or on office buildings. Used to power the buildings to which they are attached. Windspire wind turbines were designed to be easily integrated into existing buildings to offset energy use and provide a strong statement about environmental stewardship. Encourage greater energy conservation by employees in buildings. Technology company Adobe Systems of San Jose, California, installed 20 Windspires at their headquarters.
Solar District Heating
Germany, Denmark, Sweden. Using solar energy to heat or cool. Can meet as much as 40-70% of the annual heating needs of a residential estate. Can feed into a heat network for multiple units, providing huge energy savings compared to single installations. SDH is still in an early market development stage. Denmark is currently writing a success story, when it comes to solar district heating. Between 2010 and 2012, 18 plants were built, representing a total capacity of 120 MWth. Most of those plants are coupled with CHP plants and were realized without incentives.
LED traffic lights
Light Emitting Diodes that are used in the traffic lights as part of the Denver Area Retrofit, Use less energy, last longer, require less maintenance, and can be seen better than regular lights. LED traffic lights use almost 85% less energy. The liftetime of an LED traffic light is almost ten times that of a traditional traffic light bulb.
NYC Solar Map
The NYC Solar Map is an interactive online tool that allows users to estimate the solar energy potential for every building in New York City's five boroughs by inputting an address. The map also highlights existing solar installations, displays real-time solar energy production citywide, and allows users to estimate the costs, incentives, and payback period for investing in solar. Collects info and gives guidance.
Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy (RITE) project, NYC
"Verdant Power, East River, NYC. In three phases, the RITE Project will test, demonstrate and deliver commercial electricity from Verdant Power's Free Flow Kinetic Hydropower System (tidal). The RITE Project is a prime example of how the Free Flow System can be scaled for placement directly within a population center. Issued a commercial pilot license for tidal power- the first ever in the US. Under the license, Verdant Power plans to develop a 1 MW pilot project in the East Channel of the East River comprised of up to 30 commercial class (Generation 5) turbines, which would be installed in a staged approach. The pilot license issued to Verdant Power is for 10 years.The RITE Project demonstration system stands as the world's first grid-connected array of tidal turbines. Verdant Power's
Free Flow Kinetic Hydropower Sysem
Uses three-bladed, horizontal-axis turbines deployed underwater to generate clean renewable energy from tidal and river currents. Is installed fully underwater and operates automatically and invisible from shore. The system does not require dams or other major civil works, and does not redirect the natural flow of the water"
BedZED (Beddington Zero Energy Development, London)
UK's largest mixed use sustainable community. The design solves problems such as heating and water usage, offers to help people make sustainable choices, such as walking rather than driving; and the community has created their own facilities and groups to improve quality of life and reduce their environmental impact. It is an environmentally friendly housing development in Hackbridge, London, England. Focuses on cities not being consumption engines. Cars are discouraged, so parking is extremely limited.
Natural Hazards
Basically natural disasters, but I think the point is that they are becoming more frequent and affecting more people because the world's population has grown so much and its resources are being depleted. This causes people to move to areas more susceptible to hazards.
Elevation of Buildings (as a form of flood mitigation)
People elevate their homes in case of a flood either because they have to for insurance/they have experienced damage from floods or because they fear significant damage to their homes.
Coastal Setbacks
A prescribed distance to a coastal feature, such as the line of permanent vegetation, within which all or certain types of development are prohibited. Provide buffer zones between coastline and infrastructure so that beach zone can expand and contract naturally, which can reduce erosion. Reduce damage to property, provide better access to beaches
Sea Level Rise
Causes erosion of shorelines and rainforests, flooding of wetlands that house freshwater ecosystems. Caused by global climate changes that is melting sea ice
National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP)
"Part of Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Encourages and allows communities to adopt and enforce floodplain management ordinances to reduce future flood damage. Makes federally backed flood insurance available to homeowners, renters, and business owners in these communities. Also identifies and maps floodplains to increase awareness and improve plans. It helps provide a means for property owners to financially protect themselves. The NFIP offers flood insurance to homeowners, renters, and business owners if their community participates in the NFIP. Participating communities agree to adopt and enforce ordinances that meet or exceed FEMA requirements to reduce the risk of flooding. As of April, 2012, NFIP insured 5.5 million homes, the majority of which were in Florida and Texas.
Floodplain Management
Works reduce flood losses and to encourage the protection and enhancement of natural floodplain values, risk management, restoration, mapping. A community's agreement to adopt and enforce floodplain management ordinances, particularly with respect to new construction, is an important element in making flood insurance available to home and business owners. Aspect of what FEMA does.
Floodwalls, Seawalls, Structural Armoring
Floodwalls: temporary protection from floodwaters, an improvement on sand bags. Sea Wall: a form of hard and strong coastal defense constructed on the inland part of a coast to reduce the effects of strong waves. Structural Armoring: ballistic resistant structures which can provide protection for all types of facilities requiring perimeter and internal location security
Rotterdam Strategy for "Climate Proofing"
Climate change is incorporated in spatial planning tools in order to continuously take into account the effects of climate change while developing Rotterdam. Measures have been taken to suffer the least from climate change in the next decades. Synergy: Aspects of water quality, quantity, safety, and urban planning. Green roofs is a strategy used. Water safety includes city climate, urban water management, adaptive building, and accessibility. Floating city concept.
Water Plazas (Rotterdam)
(Netherlands) Playgrounds doubling as water storage
Shoreline Retreat
Shore erosion that causes the shoreline to retreat. It's an environmental concern associated with shorelines. Possible causes: increase in temperature of surface water, tectonics
Beach Renourishment
To counter erosion, the process of dumping or pumping sand from elsewhere onto an eroding shoreline to create a new beach or to widen the existing beach.
Natural Hazard Mitigation
Plan to reduce damage by natural hazards.
Passive Survivability
As world oil production capacity fails to keep up with demand, many experts are predicting fuel supply shortages. Our buildings, especially homes, apartment buildings, schools, and hospitals, should be designed and built to maintain livable conditions in the event of an extended power outage, fuel supply interruption, or water shortage
Resilient Cities and Communities
Resilience is the capacity of a community to respond creatively, preventatively, and proactively to change or extreme events, thus mitigating crisis or disaster. Is crucial at a local level.
Portland BEST program
Business for an Environmentally Sustainable Tomorrow. To help local businesses and recognize sustainble/eco friendly businesses in the area. Help local businesses.
Import Substitution
a trade and economic policy based on the premise that a country should attempt to reduce its foreign dependency through the local production of industrialized products
Eco-Industrial Parks
an industrial park in which businesses cooperate with each other and with the local communityin an attempt to reduce waste and pollution, efficiently share and help achieve sustainable development
Farmers Markets
"-markets usually held outdoors, in public spaces, where farmers can sell produce to the public -becoming more popular. -supports locally grown food --> community supported agriculture -helps to develop a sustainable economy --> emphasis on locally owned, small businesses"
Appalachian Harvest
"-non-profit co-op that supports Appalachian Sustainable Development -produces locally grown food and sponsors community events (i.e. the Annual Harvest Celebration in Abingdon) -the Appalachian Harvest Network: ""puts money in farmers' pockets and puts good food on the table in and environmentally sustainable way" -helped local farmers to transform their old rows of tobacco into thriving organic fruit/veggie fields --> supports CSA and a sustainable economy"
Community Incubators
-a community environment that grows and nurtures small businesses through their early years of existence by providing an array of business assistance service, shared resources and networking opportunities
Appalachian Center for Economic Networks (ACEnet, in Athens, OH)
"-a privately and government funded community economic development organization currently focusing on technology and food sectors --> example of a community incubator -their mission: ""to build, support innovation, and facilitate collaboration with Appalachian Ohio's businesses to create a strong, sustainable regional economy"""
Genuine Progress Indicator (as alternative to GDP)
"an alternative metric system which is an addition to the national system of accounts that has been suggested to replace, or supplement, gross domestic product (GDP) as a metric of economic growth.- used in green/sustainable economics; an attempt to measure whether a country's growth, increased production of goods, and expanding services that have resulted in the improvement of welfare more reliable measure of economic progress"
Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
"- an international non-profit organization established to promote responsible management of the world's forests -this is accomplished by standard setting, independent certification and labeling of forest products - offers customers to choose products from socially and environmentally responsible forestry."
Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)
"- an independent non-profit organization with an ecolabel and fishery certification program -fisheries that are assessed and meet the standard can use the MSC ecolabel -mission: to reward sustainable fishing practices and encourage fisheries to operate in an environmentally responsible way (meaning it does not contribute to the global problem of overfishing)"
Seafood Watch (Monterey Bay Aquarium)
"-a program designed to raise awareness about the importance of buying seafood from sustainable sources -known for publishing consumer guides for responsible seafood purchasing -partner of the SeaWeb's Seafood Choices Alliance"
Ecover Ecological Factory (Belgium)
"-a Belgium based company manufacturing and internationally trading domestic ecological cleaning products -world's largest supplier of such products"
Waste-based Industries
"-provide cost effective and environmental sound solutions to solid waste disposal and recycling -local problems become economic opportunities -example: The Loading Dock recycles building materials"
"- Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of local people -focuses on uniting conservation, communities and sustainable travel -educates the traveler, provides funds for ecological conservation and directly benefits the economic development and political empowerment of local communities -form of place- based economic development"
Appalachian Sustainable Development (ASD) (2)
"- not-for-profit organization working in the Appalachian region of Virginia and Tennessee - focuses on developing healthy, diverse and ecologically sound economic opportunities through education and training, and the development of cooperative networks and marketing systems -strives to build a strong local food system based on organic and sustainable farming and to foster forest conservation through value-added wood processing and green building -promotes a sustainable economy"
Emissions Trading
"- a market-based approach used to control pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants -also known as cap and trade buying and selling of emission permits between businesses so that the overall cap or limit of the amount of pollutant is maintained"
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
"- a U.S. environmental law that established a national policy promoting the enhancement of the environment - requires federal agencies to integrate environmental values into their decision making processes by considering the environmental impacts of their proposed actions and reasonable alternatives to those actions - set up procedural requirements for all federal government agencies to prepare Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements -also established the President's Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ)."
Green taxes; ecological tax reform
"-tax intended to promote ecologically sustainable activities via economic incentives-the objective is ""often to implement a ""full cost accounting"" or ""true cost accounting"", using fiscal policy to internalize market distorting externalities, which leads to sustainable wealth creation"""
Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT)
the total number of miles driven by all vehicles within a given time period and geographic area. influenced by factors such as population, age distribution, and the number of vehicles per household.
Transit-oriented Development (TOD)
a type of community development that includes a mixture of housing, office, retail and/or other amenities integrated into a walkable neighborhood and located within a half-mile of quality public transportation
Zürich Trams
"-form of public transit in the city of Zurich that serves most city neighborhood -supplemented by trolleybus and bus routes as well as two funicular railways and one rack railway -effective in the promoting of alternative forms of transportation and decreased car dependence"
Hasselt, Belgium
"-important traffic junction city in Belgium -has made public transport by bus zero-fare first city in the world that had entirely zero-fare bus services on the whole of its territory"
Green Cycle Routes (Copenhagen)
"-extensive and well-designed system of cycle paths in Copenhagen 350km of path separate from car lanes plus 20km of on road-cycle lanes -the city is currently developing system of interconnected green bicycle routes, greenways, with the aim to facilitate fast, safe and pleasant bicycle transport from one end of the city to the other. -allows cycling to be an important means of transportation and a dominating feature of the cityscape -has earned it a reputation as one of the most—possibly the most—bicycle-friendly city in the world"
Electric Bikes
Bike that can tell when you're peddling and when a "boost" is needed. MIT Lab and the Copenhagen wheel. Many cities have been learning how to accomodate them, with storage lockers and whatnot.
Solar Bikes (Palm Springs)
Electric bike program. People have to put down a small payment, do a short training, keep a daily log. Typically people end up buying the bikes.
Charlottesville Yellow Bikes
Bike share program in Charlottesvile about 10 years ago. Parking was outside of Bodo's. People collected, painted and repaired old bikes. Basically all of the bikes got stolen. Didn't work out as intended to.
Smart Bikes
Communal bike systems, similar to zip cars. Focus on sharing and responsibility. German train system- you get a ticket and have the option to get a bike
Circular intersection or junction in which road traffic is slowed and flows almost continuously in one direction around a central island to several exits onto the various intersecting roads. They result in nearly a 40% reduction in crashes, 76% reduction in injury. Related to the idea of "naked streets"
Christiansfeld, Denmark
Naked Streets. No lights, no signs. help people appreciate their surroundings because they make people uncomfortable and they have to look around because they don't know where they are. slows drivers down, making streets more conducive to walking
Slow Food
this movement startd in Italyy by Carlo Petrini. "Ark of Taste" a movement against fast food that tries to re-emphasize the enjoyment of food and appreciation for local cuisine as opposed to ubiquitous fast food.
Slow Cities
offshoot of the slow food movement pushing for less traffic, less noise and fewer crowds. Tries to make commuting a pleasure as opposed to a chore and push the importance of relaxation. (example, nothing is open 24 hours, no big box stores, etc)
Slow Money
a movement to organize investors and donors to steer new sources of capital to small food enterprises, organic farms, and local food systems. Slow Money takes its name from the Slow Food movement
Intersection Repair, Portland
Neighborhood reclaiming of a local intersection turning it into an aesthetically pleasing public square. See share-it-square below for example.
Share-It Square (Portland)
located in Portland's Sellwood neighborhood. Turned an intersection into their own public square and painted a geometric design that gets remained every year. Has a community bulletin board, 24 hour tea station, food sharing stand etc. Felt is made crime decrease and traffic slowed and there was more interaction between community members.
Janette Sadik-Khan (NYC Transportation Commissioner)
Current commissioner of NYC Department of Tranpsportation. Has implemented an ambitious program to improve safety, mobility and sustainability in NYC.
Innate emotional connection to nature, coined by Erin Fromm Larger and broader values that nature brings, by having it around. Author E.O. Wilson (Harvard); we have an affiliation with nature from co-evolving with it. This is part of our human nature and needs to be exercised... cultivate it; nurture it; foster it. Evidence: Nancy Wells and nature & cognitive functioning in children, Ulrich and his study of biophilia in hospital rooms: Texas A&M at the Dell Children's Hospital- waterfall in center, virtually none of the rooms are far away from windows, exterior healing gardens. Melbourne's Council House 2 (CH2) - main office building for city workers. Every worker has access to natural daylight and fresh air. Increase in productivity was ~10%
Biophilic Cities
Contain abundant nature; seek to foster and protect that nature. Connecting citizens with the natural world. Cities that find creative and innovative ways to incorporate nature into their urban design. Singapore: vertical city, systematically tackling the "nature" aspect, motto is "city in a garden". Optimizing urban spaces for greenery and recreation. It's about engagement and participation, activity patterns and lifestyle, culture of curiosity, programs and governance, knowledge and connections, and deep caring. Citizens have to be involved! Other examples of biophilic cities: Portland, Wellington, San Francisco (Jane Martin- sidewalk gardens). How to make a city more biophilic? More outdoor activities, such as birdwatching, gardening, stream restoration. Incorporating nature into design. Europe's plan: "Green Capital City Plan", % of population within 300m of green space/ nature/ park
"Forest Bathing"
Biophysical effects of walking through a forest. Japanese research. Reductions in stress hormones (cortisol) and boosts to immune system. In Japan they are setting up stations around the cities to go forest bathing.
Green Infrastructure
Network providing "ingredients" for solving urban and climatic challenges by building with nature. Components include stormwater management, climate adaptation, less heat stress, more biodiversity, food production, better air quality, sustainable energy production, clean water and healthy soils, as well as the more anthropocentric functions such as increased quality of life through recreation and providing shade and shelter in and around towns and cities. Idea conceptualized around the mid-1990s in the U.S. Big emphasis on stormwater management techniques. Trees in the city: tree-covered buildings, "green roof"- extensive (whole roof covered shallowly) or intensive (portion of roof covered in potted trees, etc.). Green walls- effective in retaining storm water, cooling buildings, many of the same things that green roofs do. Bosco Verticale, Milan: each story of the building has an outer layer of trees.
Greenwalls/Vertical Gardens (e.g. Patrick Blanc)
Persian botanist who was really artistic and blurred the lines between nature and art. Green walls retain storm water, create habitats for animals, cool buildings, and sequester carbon. Paris, France. Aspect of green infrastructure. Newtown Suites, Singapore- tallest green wall- every 5 floors is a "garden"
Portland Eco-Roof Bonus
An incentive for designers to design eco roof on their buildings that also have the benefits of significantly decreasing stormwater runoff, saving energy, reducing pollution and erosion, and helping preserve the fish habitat. For example- Portland's Mosaic Building. The greater the portion of the roof, the greater the density given.
Urban Ecological Networks
sustainable use of urban lands to create a balance between both physical and natural systems in urban areas. Can involve protecting patches of land from outside disturbances can be connected to maximize recreational value. Included but not limited to forests, drainage canals, greenways, and gardens.
Singapore (many greening efforts including Park Connectors)
Green network of nature reserves, parks, park connectors, tree-lined roads and other natural areas has made our city a more pleasant place to live, work and play in. "Park connectors treat you to a myriad of sensory delights and adventure that only Mother Nature can offer". 180 km of park connectors. Singapore is an excellent example of nature in a vertical "city in a garden"
Solaris building (Singapore)
First sustainable office building: "continuous spiral landscaped terrace that winds its way up to lush roof gardens, a green corridor with central courtyards, and a unique solar shaft that helps create a daylit, naturally ventilated atrium. The 15-storey multi-tenanted facility is also fitted with sun shading devices to reduce solar heat gain and rainwater harvesters to minimise water consumption". Example of VERTICAL PUBLIC SPACE
Newtown Suites (Singapore)
"36-story development is a study in environmental solutions to tropical high-rise living. The design integrates several sustainable devices into a contemporary architectural composition, creating a sustainable, contemporary addition to the city skyline."
Austrian architect who designed with irregular forms and incorporated natural features into his designs...think modern geometric tree-houses. He designed the Hundertwasserhaus apartment block in Vienna where the apartments have uneven floors.
Chicago City Hall
Has a green roof. "I want Chicago to be the greenest city in the world, and I am committed to fostering opportunities for Chicagoans to make sustainability a part of their lives and their experience in the city." -- Mayor Emanuel
Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO)
combined sewers are designed to collect rainwater, sewage and industrial wastewater in the same pipe. During storms these can overflow overwhelming water treatment plants and resulting in the discharge of the mixture into nearby streams and rivers.
Green Parking Lots/Shading Standards
mandating a tree for every # of parking spots. helps shade the area and keep the city cooler.
Growing Vine Street (Seattle)
a grassroots effort from a neighborhood in Seattle to turn 8-blocks of Vine Street into an urban park. The project not only improves aesthetics but slows and filters stormwater flow to avoid combined sewer overflow in the city
Street Edge Alternatives (SEA), Seattle
a series of measures to provide drainage that more closely mimics the natural landscape prior to development. The streets are narrower, wigglier and lined with bushes and trees.
Stream Daylighting
the redirection of a stream that was previously diverted into a culvert back into an above-ground channel (its natural state), which actually allows for better stormwater management as vegetation naturally filters water and slows the flow.
Hattersheim, Germany
incorporating stormwater management as art (cool water fountian steps) instead of the usual hiding it in culverts. make it art and a place for kids to play. "Flowforms" (water feature) are specially designed sculptural vessels whose shapes manipulate the movement of water to recreate the life-enhancing phenomenon of "cycloid spiral motion" found in naturally flowing water
San Luis O'Bispo, CA
turning land along the river into greenfields into stormwater management reasons and quality of the stream
Rain Gardens
Maplewood, minnesota. plants with beter ability to take in water and had larger roots. soil has a different permeability, hydroplants. mulch allows water to percolate on site. -- A rain garden is a planted depression that allows rainwater runoff from impervious urban areas like roofs, driveways, walkways, parking lots, and compacted lawn areas the opportunity to be absorbed. This reduces rain runoff by allowing stormwater to soak into the ground (as opposed to flowing into storm drains and surface waters which causes erosion, water pollution, flooding, and diminished groundwater). They can be designed for specific soils and climates.
PLANT*SF (and founder Jane Martin)
"Permeable Landscapes as Neighborhood Treaure San Francisco - Organization in San Francisco. Its mission is to promote permeable landscaping equally as sustainable urban infrastructural practice and as a beautification effort; by providing information to the public and by partnering with city and neighborhood organizations. Some ideas led by PlantSF is sidewalk landscaping in San Francisco. Jane Martin: Founder and principal of Shift Design Studio, specializing in the design of buildings, interiors and landscapes. She is a licensed architect and artist whose work embraces all scales from urban planning to sculpture. Ms. Martin is founding director of Plant*SF, a San Francisco non-profit focused on storm water diversion through public space community planting projects. She is a San Francisco Commissioner of the Environment and participates in a number of civic organizations.
Parklets (San Francisco)
Conversion of utilitarian and often underused spaces in the street into publicly accessible open spaces available for all to enjoy. Parklets are intended as aesthetic enhancements to the streetscape, providing an economical solution to the need for increased public open space. They provide amenities like seating, planting, bike parking, and art
Low Impact Development (LID)
Low impact development (LID) is a term used in the United States to describe a land planning and engineering design approach to managing stormwater runoff. LID emphasizes conservation and use of on-site natural features to protect water quality. This approach implements engineered small-scale hydrologic controls to replicate the pre-development hydrologic regime of watersheds through infiltrating, filtering, storing, evaporating, and detaining runoff close to its source (SUCH a civil engineering term!) example-rain gardens!! Rainwater harvesting, reusing storm water, retention ponds, etc.
Green Parking Lots
Green parking lots reduce runoff that is discharged into local water bodies by using permeable paving and natural drainage landscapes. To achieve a "green" parking lot, much of the rainwater needs to be captured directly by the permeable pavement in the parking lot. Any rainwater running off the parking lot and building roofs needs to be redirected into rain gardens where it can drain into the underlying soil instead of flowing into storm drainsEdison, NJ.
Parking Lot Shading Standards
Certain number of trees and shaded are around a parking area. The idea is to increase shaded areas for natural cooling. The City of Sacramento is requiring that half of area of all its parking lots be shaded.
Chicago City Farm
An example of urban agriculture. Urban agriculture is the practice of cultivating, processing and distributing food in, or around a village, town or city. Urban agriculture in addition can also involve animal husbandry, aquaculture, agro-forestry and horticulture. These activities also occur in peri-urban areas as well. Urban farming is generally practiced for income-earning or food-producing activities though in some communities the main impetus is recreation and relaxation. Turns vacant land into productive farmland. Create a network of fresh vegetable production, provide jobs and sell fresh, organic food. Farm available land until the city finds a new use for it!
Food Miles
Term referring to the distance food is transported from the time of its production until it reaches the consumer. Food miles are one factor used when assessing the environmental impact of food, including the impact on global warming. This type of metric is sometimes used as a carbon emission label on packaging. Some scholars believe that an increase in the miles food travels is due to the globalization of trade; the focus of food supply bases into fewer, larger districts; drastic changes in delivery patterns; the increase in processed and packaged foods; and making fewer trips to the supermarket. At the same time, most of the greenhouse gas emissions created by food have their origin in the production phases, which create 83% of overall emissions of CO2.
T & E Meats (Harrisonburg, VA)
"True and Essential Meats". Example of creating a sustainable local economy. Local meats to local tables, farmers markets, restaurants, and retail establishments. T&E enables farmers in Virginia to raise and direct market quality livestock by providing excellent processing services under USDA inspection. Lowers the food miles!
Joel Salatin and Polyface Farm
grass fed rotational system. Joel Salatin is awesome! Healing the land, healing the food, healing the economy, and healing the culture. Writing, speaking, and farm tours offer various message venues. Experience the satisfaction of knowing your food and your farmer, building community. We are your clean meat connection.
Family-owned, organic farm in VA. Joel Salatin is the owner. Grass-based farming, low-impact farming. Focused on staying local and traditional.
The Intervale (Burlingon, VT)
Nonprofit organization focused on strengthening community food systems, by way of new farm incubation, farm business development, agricultural market development, agricultural land stewardship, food systems research and consulting and celebration of food and farmers. Through their "farm incubation"- lease land, equipment, irrigation, facilities, etc., to small farms; removes start-up barriers. Conservation nursery- grow local, native trees and shrubs.
Appalachian Sustainable Development (ASD)
Not-for-profit organization working in the Appalachian region of Virginia and Tennessee. Formed in 1995, ASD focuses on developing healthy, diverse and ecologically sound economic opportunities through education and training, and the development of cooperative networks and marketing systems. Work encompasses two broad areas: Building a strong local food system based on organic and sustainable farming and fostering forest conservation through value-added wood processing and "green building." ASD links consumers with farmers and producers and provides hands-on opportunities for learning, advocacy and civic engagement. Have a program that does farmers markets in the Appalachian region. "The mission of Appalachian Sustainable Development is to create, promote and expand economically viable, environmentally sound and socially responsible opportunities to help improve the lives and the health of our local communities and ecosystems."
Citilogs (and Stubby Warmbold)
"CitiLog, and affiliates CampusLog and CitiWood Works, are innovative urban forestry pioneers whose mission is to save trees from being dumped in landsfills, cut for firewood, or ground up for mulch. In the process we provide a valuable source of quality lumber, cabinetry, millwork and a wide variety of finished wood products. In the process they sequester the carbon in the wood so it does not contribute to the buildup of greenhouse gases - something that would happen if the tree was dumped in a landfill, burned or ground. Stubby Warmbold: Founder of CitiLogs and worked in the logging trade prior to founding Citilogs. ""Upcycling"" trees into finished products. Citilog has been involved in some of the most innovative green building projects in the northeastern United States."
Urban Hardwoods (Seattle)
Company that makes furniture out of wood that would be otherwise thrown away into the dump. Wood is tried and then used in fabrication of furniture that emphasizes the natural beauty of the wood. Each piece of Urban Hardwoods furniture is unique and handcrafted in Seattle using locally salvaged wood. We use trees felled in Seattle neighborhoods that would otherwise be discarded, giving them a second life as high-quality furniture that's solid, sustainable, and one of a kind
Copeland Furniture (Vermont)
Locally owned wood furniture company in Vermont. Example of creating a sustainable local economy. Use sustainably harvesed woods from North Amertica. Forest Stewardship Council Certified. Very beautiful furniture.
Community-Connected Forestry (e.g. Hyla Woods, in Oregon)
Ecologically complex, sustainably managed forests. Purpose is to actively encourage people to visit Hyla Woods to help out with everything from planting and ecological monitoring to milling and wood cutting; and to buy wood directly from the three forests that make up Hyla Woods, all of which are located within an hour's drive from Portland. Community-connected forestry aims to increase consumers' connections to local, sustainably managed forests. In the Hayes' case, it means they actively encourage people to visit Hyla Woods to help out with everything from planting and ecological monitoring to milling and wood cutting; and to buy wood directly from the three forests that make up Hyla Woods, all of which are located within an hour's drive from Portland
Eco-Enterprise Center (Minneapolis, MN)
Part of the Green Institute. It has grown from its roots as a neighborhood-based movement to become one of the state's leading non-profit innovators developing tangible solutions that improve the environment and communities.
Growing Power, Milwaukee
An urban agriculture organization headquartered in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. It runs the last functional farm within the Milwaukee city limits and also organizes activities in Chicago. Growing Power aims for sustainable food production, as well as the growth of communities through the creation of local gardens. Growing Power is a national nonprofit organization and land trust supporting people from diverse backgrounds, and the environments in which they live, by helping to provide equal access to healthy, high-quality, safe and affordable food for people in all communities. Will designed a program that offered teens an opportunity to work at his store and renovate the greenhouses to grow food for their community. What started as a simple partnership to change the landscape of the north side of Milwaukee has blossomed into a national and global commitment to sustainable food systems.
Sweet Water Organics
An urban farm located in the Bay View neighborhood of Milwaukee that has re-purposed unused industrial building space; growing fresh, safe produce and fish for local Milwaukee residents, restaurants and groceries. Sweet Water is an urban fish and vegetable farm. Our goal is to provide fresh, safe food for our local communities while maintaining reasonable prices and respecting our environment. Uses aquaponics.
Food production system that combines aquaculture and hydroponics; symbiotic. Sweet Water Organics, Milwaukee. - System of agriculture involving the simultaneous cultivation of plants and aquatic animals such as fish in a symbiotic environment. In a traditional aquaculture, animal effluents accumulate in the water, increasing toxicity for the fish. This water is then led to a hydroponic system where the by-products from the aquaculture are filtered out by the plants as vital nutrients, after which the clean water is recirculated back to the animals.
Vertical Farms; The Vertical Farms Project (ideas of Dickson Despommier)
"Proposed agricultural technique involving large-scale agriculture in urban high-rises or ""farmscrapers"".Using advanced greenhouse technology and greenhouse methods such as hydroponics, these buildings would produce fruit, vegetables, edible mushrooms and algae year-round. Vertical farming is cultivating plant or animal life within a skyscraper greenhouse or on vertically inclined surfaces. The idea of a vertical farm has existed at least since the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. The modern idea of vertical farming uses techniques similar to glass houses, where natural sunlight can be augmented with artificial lighting.
Promise of Vertical Farms
If successfully implemented, they offer the promise of urban renewal, sustainable production of a safe and varied food supply (year-round crop production), and the eventual repair of ecosystems that have been sacrificed for horizontal farming. Despommier is a public health professor at Colombia University; said that a vertical farm 30 stories high on one square block of land in NYC could produce enough to supply 50,000 people.
Hantz Farms (Detroit)
Mike Score (President) bought the land in detroit to create an urban farm and revive the city. "World's largest urban farm."
Eagle Street Rooftop Farm (NYC)
6000 sq ft green roof organic vegetable farm located atop a warehouse roof in reenpoint brooklyn
Brooklyn Grange (NYC)
Worlds largest rooftop farm, covering two rooftops in NYC, grows and distributes fresh local vegetable and herbs. Brooklyn Grange also provides urban farming and green roof consulting and installation services to clients worldwide, and we partner with numerous non-profit organizations throughout New York to promote healthy and strong local communities
Charlottesville Food Hub
work with local farmers to sell food to local restaurants. it works with refugees. the food hub aggregates and packages food and sends it out
"Company in NYC that designs, finances, builds and operates hydroponic greenhouse farms at, or near, supermarkets, eliminating time, distance and cost. Hydroponics = a subset of hydroculture and is a method of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions, in water, without soil. The design of the hydroponic systems allows for water recirculation. That means that we use less water than conventional agriculture and there is no agricultural runoff"
Dark Sky Ordinances
an Internatonal dark sky society that was started because of the inability to see the night sky. it involves lightig codes and transitioning to full cut off lights -- The International Dark Sky Association lobbied state and local governments to pass restrictive ordinances on the type of lighting private property owners may use. "Dark Sky laws" aim to reduce "light pollution" so as to make stargazing easier
LED Lights
light emitting diode. Low energy consumption. More efficient than incandescent bulbs. Use them for traffic lights. Denver for example.
Växjö, Sweden
"Sustainable European City. Aim is to reduce consumption. The biggest reduction in emissions has been with the municipal district heating and power plant. They have replaced oil with wood waste from the local forest industry which is burnt to generate electricity. The cooling water that warms up in the process is then used in a district heating system. The ashes from the furnace are sent back to the forest as added nutrients. In 1994, Växjö began replacing all street lighting with energy efficient bulbs. The topic of Renewable Energy and finding ways of reducing energy consumption."
Full Cut-off Lights
no light is shining above the horizon. Lights cast no light directly into the sky. Greatly reduce skyglow and glare
Ecover Factory
in Belgium. Designed with roof windows to use only natural light during the daylight hours
Eco-Sainsburys Grocery (London)
also designed with roof windows to use only natural light during the daylight hours
Pearl River Tower (China)
energy conservative skyscraper. Wind turbines built into the body structure of the building. Could be on one of the most environmentally friendly buildings in the world
Solara (San Diego, CA)
California's first solar powered apartment complex.
Daylit Schools
schools designed to maximize daylight (south-facing roof moniters). Controlled sunlight into high occupied areas. Statistically proven that student perform better
Positive Energy Buildings (e.g. the Elithis Tower in Dijon, France)
first positive enery office building in the worlds, building that produces more power than it needs
Solar-tracking Skylights
skylights that track the sun throughout the day to capture more of the sun's usable light. Reflects light that would otherwise be lost when sun is low in the sky
Vertical Axis Wind Turbines
do not require as much wind to generate power as horizontal, turbines. Closer to the ground, easier to maintain. Can be placed closer together. Can be installed on tall structures
McNeil Generating Station (Burlington, VT)
a 50MW wood fired power plant. converts up to 200 tons of wood per day into a gas that is used to co-fuel a wood-fired boiler to generate electricity
Barcelona Solar Ordinance
August 2000. regulate the incorporation of solar thermal energy and its use for the production of hot tap water in the city's buildings. Decrease expenses on fossil fuels, lower CO2 emissions
Middlegrunden Windfarm (Copenhagen)
off shore wind farm. 20 turbines, 40 MW of power. Delivers 4% of Copenhagen's power. 50% owned by investors
Ride the Wind (Calgary, Canada)
Calgary transit service. The equivalent amount of power used by the trains is sent to main power grid, and 12 windmills produce the power needed for electricity
100-mile Diet
effort to eat locally. Eat food that is grown within 100 miles. Avoid food that has been shipped from elsewhere
Hot Lips Pizza
family owned business in Portland. Ingredients are bought locally
Terranova's Grocery (in New Orleans)
family owned neighborhood market (I cant find much on this)
Tulsa Floodplain Relocation Program
relocating storm water as an asset to the city. Rather than building retention tanks, plan includes preserving open space, creating permanent lakes, and relocating some buildings
Edible Landscaping
Planning for food production in the city landscape. Rooftop farming- Brooklyn Grange = world's largest rooftop farm. In Montreal- Ismael Hautecoeur used a recycling bin and a trellace. Dickson Despommier, public health professor at Colombia University, made a vertical farm 30 stories high on one square block in NYC. Plants are beign fed nutrients, the temperature is controlled, and it's water efficient; possible that it supplies for the needs of 50,000 people.
Edible Parks
parks designed with plants that produce fruit/vegetable. Form of edible landscaping. First one in Asheville, NC
Mexican Free-Tail Bats (in Austin, TX)
bats nest in bridges in Austin, TX. Organization formed to protect them. Bridges are now being designed to provide proper nesting places. People gather to watch the bats fly out of the bridges at night.
Worlds first Marine BioBlitz in Wellington, New Zealand. 24 hour inventory of diversity you find around beach, event in which community members (students, etc) take inventory of all of the species in a certain park or area
Västra Hamnen (Malmö, Sweden)
western harbor in Malmo, Sweden. "city of tomorrow". Mixed-use, biophilic city. Beatley showed a video of him walking around with a woman of this place in class.
EcoTrust Building (Portland)
old warehouse converted into a conservation marketplace. LEED gold. Mixture of tenants including retailers, non-profits, etc.
Scandic Hotels
made from recycled materials, hotel chain around Europe. Strong sustainability focus.
Zero-emission Hotel (Freiburg, Germany)
uses only renewables for energy and heat
Boulder Independent Business Alliance
grassroots organization. Collaborative of locally owned businesses, seeks to preserve the character of local business.
Burger chain made from pastured vegetarian-fed and antibiotic-free beef, healthy chickens etc. Purchases wind power credits equal to 100 percent of our electricity use, recycles used canola oil into biodiesel. "Fresh, local, sustainable"
Formula Restaurant Ordinances
restriction on the number of "formula" restaurants in a given area. Formula restaurants are those which are required by contract to have standardized uniforms, architecture, menus, etc.
HandMade in America
an example of Community Supported Art, non-profit organization created to promote handmade craft in the US. Promoting cultural heritage & community.
Bank of Astoria (Tom Bender design)
bank building designed to complement the natural architecture. Wooden, locally sourced materials. Many sustainable elements. Community-oriented design
Forest Heritage Centre (Western Australia)
built in the Jarrah forest, holds the Australian School of Fine Wood. Educational tours of the forest and the building. Built in the shape of tree leaves.
Honolulu, HI
"Hawaii today is less capable of self-sufficiency than in the 1960s . Initiates concept of "scaling up": the goal of scaling up is not just to make local food available, but to ensure that local foods that are grown in a sustainable way are available to all consumers
The Creative Class
the group of people that innovates and creates. Includes artists, engineers, scientists. It is the believed that the creative class is a crucial part of economic development.
Blue Urbanism
The attempt to become better stewards of the world's oceans. Recognizing that we live on a blue planet. Sylvia Earle wrote the book, "The World is Blue", talks about why oceans are important: oceans drive climate and weather, regulate temperature, embrace 97% of world's biosphere, hold greatest abundance and diversity of life of earth. Focus on connecting cities with the ocean.
Ocean Sprawl
Putting on one map the different ways that we affect the near-shore ocean environment, such as soil erosion, pollution, shipping channel discahrge, etc. Cities have physical/ carbon footprint but also have tremendous ecological footprint! describing the impact of human activities on the ocean. Map showing how far into the ocean the consumption/pollution of humans is impacting.
Long Beach (CA) Green Port
topic of Blue Urbanism: Green Port Policy was adopted by the Port of Long Beach in 2005 in an effort to reduce pollution. Green Port Policy ets a framework for: enhancing wildlife habitat, improving air and water quality, cleaning soil and undersea sediments and creating a sustainable port culture
Cape Cod Ocean Management Plan
"Massachusetts plan that establishes boundary of where development can and cannot go in surrounding ocean. was created to ensure the protection of the state's Special, Sensitive or Unique (SSU) ocean areas while also encouraging responsible ocean development, including renewable energy, in state ocean waters."
Ocean and Marine Spatial Planning
a tool developed from the bottom up to improve collaboration and coordination among all coastal and ocean interests, and to better inform and guide decision-making that affects their economic, environmental, security, and social and cultural interests
Project Kaisei
"ocean clean-up initiative of Ocean Voyages Institute, a non-profit organization based in San Francisco. It was established to focus on major ocean clean-up and to raise awareness regarding the global problem of marine debris/ocean trash"
Pacific Garbage Patch
floating pile of trash in the Pacific ocean. A result of trash being dumped there after being transported away from the continental US. "out of sight, out of mind"
Community-Supported Fisheries (CSFs)
similar to community-supported agriculture. Community members support the local fisheries in order to obtain a share of the seafood harvested. Useful in connecting people with the oceans and the sources of fish.
Census of Marine Life
ten-year undertaking to assess the diversity, distribution, and abundance of marine life around the world. Provides a picture of marine life in the past, present, and future.
Dolphin Watch (Perth, Australia)
theme of connecting oceans to cities by way of educating. Popular eco-tour attraction
Bird Safe Design Guidelines
Initiated in San Fransico: explains the documented risks that structures present to birds.Theme of reconnecting cities to animals by green-building and conservation
Third Industrial Revolution (ideas of Jeremy Rifkin)
Rifkin: working for the Prime Minister of Spain, rethinking the entire energy system. Comprised of 4 Pillars of 3rd Industrial Revolution: 1) expand generation and use of renewable energy resources; 2) use of buildings as powerplants; 3) development of hydrogen and other storage technology; 4) shift to smart grids and plug in vehicles. Development of new energy infrastructure.
Bosco Verticale (Milan)
Italy: "World's First Vertical Forest". Example of biophilic initiative
Bogota's Ciclovia
Originated in Columbia as a public holiday where streets were closed for bikers and other activities. Similar to Parking Day. Also called "open streets". When streets are closed or a permanent bike path is created.
Copenhagen Wheel
A detachable bicycle wheel that turns a bicycle into a hybrid. The wheel determines how one petals and makes it seem as if you are pedaling on flat ground when on a hill. Allows elder to bike.
Capital City Bikeshare
Bike stations in D.C. and in the surrounding areas: Arlington, Fairfax, Mclean. You set up an account and pay for the bike miles but the first 30 minutes of each trip is free.
Road Diet
Travel lanes are reduced to achieve systematic improvements. Travel lanes can also be shrunken to encourage lower speeds and greater pedestrian safety. Could be in order to make the area more safe, adding sidewalks, adding cycle lanes, act.
Complete Streets
A plan that requires streets to be planned, designed, operated, and maintained to enable safe, convenient, and comfortable, travel for all users. Safe travel for bikers, pedestrians, buses, automobiles. Oregon completed the first policy in 1971. Some elements: sidewalks, crosswalks, islands, intersection repair.
Intersection Repair
The citizen led conversion of an urban street intersection into a public square. It is a collaboration of the citizens in the area. They are designed to make drivers drive more slowly in these areas. It began in Portland, Oregon
Naked Streets/Intersections
Improves street aesthetics and slows down cars by removing all signs. Drivers have to be conscientious and cautious. In Makkinga, Denmark they have no signs or traffic lights. They have cobblestone roads with many traffic circles.
Ultra Small Vehicles
A very small, single person vehicle. In the shape of a wheel. Battery powered. Designed to clear up congestion on the road and reduces emissions.
Blue Mind
Book by Wallace J. Nichols. designed to persuade how being near, in, on, or under water can make one happier, healthier, more concentrated, and better at what you do.
100 "whaling walls"
Outdoor murals done by the artist Wyland. Set a goal to paint 100 walls by 2011. Reached goal in 2008, Bejing. First wall was at Laguna Beach, California. Promotes art and conservation.
Drift Cards
Drop these 4x6 inch pieces of plywood each with a unique serial number in the water. Anyone who finds them is asked to contact the information on the card. There researchers can make inferences on oil spill trajectories based on the card's start and end points.
Georgia Strait Alliance
Created in 1990, has been the only citizen's group focused on protecting the marine environment along the strait of Georgia. Promotes sustainable communities, restore water and air quality, protect marine life and habitat, foster stewardship of the marine environment.
Closed Loop Cities
Where everything is needed to support the city-energy, food, ect. is contained in the city. As seen in Stockholm
International Dark Sky Association
Recognized authority on cutting down on light pollution. They encourage citizens to only light what they need.
Rockefeller Foundation's 100 Resilient Cities
Dedicated to helping cities become more resilient to the physical, social, and economic challenges. Helps cities battle earthquakes, fires, floods, unemployment, overtaxed or inefficient public transit, ect.
Community Supported Art
Their vision is a world where everyone is an artist. Empower sustainable, social engaged, contemplative creativity by connecting art lovers with local artists. Creative exchanges happens through art parties.
Also known as Solar Bike Paths. Converts sunlight on the road surface into electricity. Opened on November 12th 2014 in Amsterdam suburbs of Krommenie and Wormerveer.
Extensive Green Roofs
Characterized of its vegetation ranging from grasses, herbs, or plants. 6 inches or less. Acts as an efficient storm water management device. Swarthmore College has this on one of its buildings.
The Nature Pyramid
A useful method to shape discussion about biophyllic planning. depicts the kind of activities that are important for human health and indicates designed proportions of these activities. Exposure to nature hourly and in the neighborhood is more important than at an international level barely touching it for a year. International, national, regional, neighborhood. Yearly, monthly, weekly, hourly. Like visiting places like Himalayas because they increase carbon footprint and should only be considered a treat. We can use this to look at our cities and see if we are getting a healthy dosage.
One Central Park
In Sydney. A city combined with nature. Two residential towers connected by terraced gardens and plants growing up the walls. Symbiotic relationship of plants and buildings. Mixed use