>700 acre forest owned by the community parks and recreation center of Arcata, CA (northern coastal CA), joined together smaller pieces of a forest east of the city, creates a continous park system, used for community education, recreation, wildlife habitat, and sustainable timber harvesting. Community forestry is an evolving branch of forestry whereby the local community plays a significant role in forest management and land use decision making by themselves in the facilitating support of government as well as change agents. Several hundred acres managed by the city, provides income, used to buy more land and sustain forests. "Community-connected forests"- new model of forest stewardship/ producer-consumer partnership. Peter Hayes, Citilogs. "Anything associated with the planning, maintenance, and regulation of facilities which collect, store, or convey stormwater, including retention ponds, swales and wetlands, pervious materials, infiltration, and detention. Manages the quantity and quality of stormwater. Many methods are used to do this. They include: retention ponds, swales and wetlands, pervious materials, infiltration, and detention. One method is to use an eco-roof to collect and manage stormwater. Example of a neighborhood with circular metabolism. Hammarby Sjostad is their test wastewater treatment plan. City undergoing transformation toward renewable and eco-friendly energy. The eco-cycle handles energy, waste, water and sewage for housing, offices and other commercial activities in Hammarby Sjöstad. The eco-cycle is also designed to act as a role model for the development of equivalent technological systems in big cities. Treating sewage and storm water locally, reducing water consumption, heavy focus on solar power. -- City built on existing brownfield, built near lake outside of Stockholm, all buildings to be twice as environmentally friendly as normal, lots of public transit and bike paths, renewable energy, development approaching sustainability, new ideas and processes implemented from the beginning of development, will be completed in 2015. "Every building functioning like a tree, city like a forest." A very sustainable building, has its own on-site wastewater treatment system, produces its own power with solar, used recycled products, constructed with natural materials, designed by McDounough (office in Cville). By reconsidering design assumptions for the future, the building operates on three fundamental principles of nature—eliminate the concept of waste, rely on natural energy flows, and honor diversity. In 2006, the site became a net energy exporter, producing 30 percent more energy than it needs to operate and sharing this excess energy with the community. (circular metabolism) A brand of wetland treatment for wastewater that was started in Cville, system is used in Oberlin building, set up in levels of hydroponics, then dirt plants, with fish, snails, clams, etc underneath that do the final cleaning, provides a healthy system that is renewable and low energy that is completely sustainable to treat wastewater and allow for reuse. Signifies a shift from energy-intensive treatment. Hammarby Neighborhood, Stockholm, is also an example of a living machine. Energy that comes from natural sources such as sun, wind, tides, water flow, etc., these methods are gaining large popularity, especially wind, large scale projects to power neighborhoods and buildings, or small scale to power individual lights or traffic signals, help create a more sustainable world, no carbon output. Comes from biomass, hydropelectric, geothermal, wind turbines, solar power, and biofuels. Home with zero net energy consumption and zero carbon emissions, can be separate from the grid, create their own power on site through renewable sources, easier to do in more temperate climates, many ways to accomplish this but starts with the design, make use of climate of region, sun angles, winds, etc, use skylights and passive heating and cooling, many energy saving features. The zero net energy consumption principle is viewed as a means to reduce carbon emissions and reduce dependence on fossil fuels. The Moore House in Colorado is an example of a zero-energy home. Energy created from the use of biomass which is living or once living matter, like plant material or animal waste. Biofuels can be used to heat homes, run cars and buses, or generate electricity; biomass fuels often made from food wastes like vegetable oil, being refined into ethanolss or diesels. Algae fuels are also a type of biofuels, gaining more followers as oil prices continue to rise. Sustainable, low-carbon biomass can provide a fraction of the new renewable energy needed to reduce our emissions of heat-trapping gases like carbon dioxide to levels that should avoid the worst impacts of global warming. Biomass energy production involves annual harvests or periodic removals of crops, residues, trees or other resources from the land. These harvests and removals need to be at levels that are sustainable, i.e., ensure that current use does not deplete the land's ability to meet future needs, and also be done in ways that don't degrade other important indicators of sustainability. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design. Run by the US Green Building Council (USGBC), not a government requirement, attain points for efficient and environmentally friendly design, construction, and material use, many new building are LEED certified, extends from offices to homes and apartments, shown to increase health of users and their productivity, becoming very popular throughout the US. Set of rating systems for green-certified buildings, homes and neighborhoods. Initially, many U.S. federal agencies and state and local governments incentivized or required the use of LEED certification. However, now four states (Alabama, Georgia, Maine, and Mississippi) have effectively banned the use of LEED in new public buildings. LEED is intended to help building owners and operators be environmentally responsible and use resources efficiently Using the superheated water of the earth to create electricity, sustainable and environmentally friendly electricity production, can be used in individual home or on a larger scale, can be tanks buried in ground that pump water through home to heat or cool, or go deeper and use natural hot springs and steam, many uses and is again gaining momentum as people look for sustainable sources of power. Thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. Thermal energy is the energy that determines the temperature of matter. Geothermal power is cost effective, reliable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly, but has historically been limited to areas near tectonic plate boundaries. Recent technological advances have dramatically expanded the range and size of viable resources, especially for applications such as home heating, opening a potential for widespread exploitation Also called cogeneration. Creating heat and power at the same plant, from a single fuel source, such as: natural gas, biomass, biogas, coal, waste heat, or oil. Electric production creates some lost heat which can be used as heat for buildings in hot water form, requires centralized heat system, is more efficient as waste heat is used, often used in larger cities like NY (Manhatten) and Boston. All thermal power plants emit heat during electricity generation, which can be released into the natural environment through cooling towers, flue gas, or by other means. It's an integrated energy system. Hundertwasser's CHP plant in Vienna- less damaging, smaller-scale energy production. Contain abundant nature; seek to foster and protect that nature. Connecting citizens with the natural world. Cities that find creative and innovative ways to incorporate nature into their urban design. Singapore: vertical city, systematically tackling the "nature" aspect, motto is "city in a garden". Optimizing urban spaces for greenery and recreation. It's about engagement and participation, activity patterns and lifestyle, culture of curiosity, programs and governance, knowledge and connections, and deep caring. Citizens have to be involved! Other examples of biophilic cities: Portland, Wellington, San Francisco (Jane Martin- sidewalk gardens). How to make a city more biophilic? More outdoor activities, such as birdwatching, gardening, stream restoration. Incorporating nature into design. Europe's plan: "Green Capital City Plan", % of population within 300m of green space/ nature/ park Network providing "ingredients" for solving urban and climatic challenges by building with nature. Components include stormwater management, climate adaptation, less heat stress, more biodiversity, food production, better air quality, sustainable energy production, clean water and healthy soils, as well as the more anthropocentric functions such as increased quality of life through recreation and providing shade and shelter in and around towns and cities. Idea conceptualized around the mid-1990s in the U.S. Big emphasis on stormwater management techniques. Trees in the city: tree-covered buildings, "green roof"- extensive (whole roof covered shallowly) or intensive (portion of roof covered in potted trees, etc.). Green walls- effective in retaining storm water, cooling buildings, many of the same things that green roofs do. Bosco Verticale, Milan: each story of the building has an outer layer of trees. Nonprofit organization focused on strengthening community food systems, by way of new farm incubation, farm business development, agricultural market development, agricultural land stewardship, food systems research and consulting and celebration of food and farmers. Through their "farm incubation"- lease land, equipment, irrigation, facilities, etc., to small farms; removes start-up barriers. Conservation nursery- grow local, native trees and shrubs. A plan that requires streets to be planned, designed, operated, and maintained to enable safe, convenient, and comfortable, travel for all users. Safe travel for bikers, pedestrians, buses, automobiles. Oregon completed the first policy in 1971. Some elements: sidewalks, crosswalks, islands, intersection repair.