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Retrieved from: Instructional Development Timeline (1960)

Verbal Information-Example

Stating previously learned materials such as facts, concepts, principles, and procedures, e.g., listing the seven major symptoms of cancer

Verbal Information-Critical Learning Conditions

Draw attention to distinctive features by variations in print or speech.
Present information so that it can be made into chunks.
Provide a meaningful context for effective encoding of information.
Provide cues for effective recall and generalization of information

Intellectual Skills: Discriminations, Concrete Concepts, Defined Concepts, Rules, Higher Order Rules-Example

Discriminations: Distinguishing objects, features, or symbols, e.g., hearing different pitches played on a musical instrument

Concrete Concepts: Identifying classes of concrete objects, features, or events, e.g., picking out all the green M&Ms from the candy jar

Defined Concepts: classifying new examples of events or ideas by their definition, e.g., noting "she sells sea shells" as alliteration

Rules: Applying a single relationship to solve a class of problems, e.g., calculating the earned run averages (ERA) of the Atlanta Braves

Higher Order Rules: Applying a new combination of rules to solve a complex problem, e.g., generating a balanced budget for a state organization

Intellectual Skills-Critical Learning Conditions

Call attention to distinctive features.
Stay within the limits of working memory.
Stimulate the recall of previously learned component skills.
Present verbal cues to the ordering or combination of component skills.
Schedule occasions for practice and spaced review.
Use a variety of contexts to promote transfer

Cognitive Strategies-Example

Employing personal ways to guide learning, thinking, acting, and feeling, e.g., devising a corporate plan to improve customer relations

Cognitive Strategies-Critical Learning Conditions

Describe or demonstrate the strategy.
Provide a variety of occasions for practice using the strategy.
Provide informative feedback as to the creativity or originality of the strategy or outcome


Choosing personal actions based on internal states of understanding and feeling, e.g., deciding to exercise daily as a part of preventive health care

Attitudes-Critical Learning Conditions

Establish an expectancy of success associated with the desired attitude.
Assure student identification with an admired human model.
Arrange for communication or demonstration of choice of personal action.
Give feedback for successful performance; or allow observation of feedback in the human model.

Motor Skills-Example

Executing performances involving the use muscles, e.g., doing a triple somersault dive off the high board

Motor Skills-Critical Learning Conditions

Present verbal or other guidance to cue the executive subroutine.
Arrange repeated practice.
Furnish immediate feedback as to the accuracy of performance.
Encourage the use of mental practice.

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