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SmartBook Chapter 2
Terms in this set (401)
The study of cells is referred to as ____
The material Robert Hooke viewed under his microscope was
The following statements: all organisms are composed of cells; the cell is the basic unit of life; an organism's structure and functions are due to the activities of its cells; and cells come only from preexisting cells are generalizations of the modern ____ theory
A photomicrograph is a picture taken through a
A microscope that uses visible light to visualize specimens is a ___microscope.
The scientific study of cells is called ___
(or study of cellular structure and function)
Robert Hooke observed cork under a microscope and saw little boxes, which he called _______.
Identify the type of microscope that produces a three dimensional image.
Scanning electron microscope
The simplest unit that is considered to be alive is the ______.
Identify the type of microscopy that will reveal the greater detail.
A picture taken through a microscope is called a _________.
The ability to distinguish microscopically two objects as separate objects is _______.
The type of microscope that is typically the least expensive, easiest to use, and the most frequently used is a(n) _______ microscope.
Identify the type of microscope that would probably be found in most college teaching laboratories.
A microscope that uses an electron beam in place of light to form high-resolution, two-dimensional images of ultrathin slices of cells or tissues is known as a ______ electron microscope.
(scanning gives 3D)
Identify the type of microscope that has the greatest resolution.
Transmission electron microscope
The more important characteristic of a microscope with regard to the clarity and detail of a specimen is its _______.
The type of microscope that allows three dimensional images to be created is a:
scanning electron microscope
A microscope that uses visible light to visualize specimens is a _____ microscope.
A microscope that uses an electron beam instead of visible light to form 3-D images of the objects is a(n) _____electron microscope.
scanning or SEM
The branch of biology that investigates cells is called:
Match the cell shape with its correct description.
Which of the following are some of the largest cells in the body?
egg cells and fat cells
The term used to describe the shape of these cells is:
True or false: Scanning electron microscopy reveals only surface features of the visualized item
(To see internally, a TEM should be used)
The cell shape identified in this figure is
a thin, flat, scaly shape, often with a bulge where the nucleus is—much like the shape of a fried egg "sunny side up." Squamous cells line the esophagus and form the surface layer (epidermis) of the skin.
squarish-looking in frontal sections and about equal in height and width; liver cells are a good example.
distinctly taller than wide, such as the inner lining cells of the stomach and intestines.
having irregularly angular shapes with four, five, or more sides. Cells that look cuboidal or columnar in frontal view are commonly polygonal in an end view, like a quartz crystal.
having multiple pointed processes projecting from the body of a cell, giving it a somewhat starlike shape. The cell bodies of many nerve cells are stellate.
Spheroidal to ovoid
round to oval, as in egg cells and white blood cells.
Discoidal or discoid
disc-shaped, as in red blood cells
spindle- or toothpick-shaped; elongated, with a thick middle and tapered ends, as in smooth muscle cells.
long, slender, and threadlike, as in skeletal muscle cells and the axons (nerve fibers) of nerve cells.
A microscope that uses an electron beam in place of light to form high-resolution, three-dimensional images of the SURFACES of objects is a ________ electron microscope.
Cells such as the ones in this figure, that are thin and flat are described as:
Match the cell shape with its description
Which of the following are some of the longest cells in the body?
nerve cells and muscle cells
The cell shape indicated in the given figure is
(why not spheroidal?)
Identify the locations where squamous cells may be found.
lining of esophagus
epidermis of skin
Cells that are about as tall as they are wide are referred to as ____ cells.
Cells, such as these in the figure, that are round in appearance are described as:
Cells that are thin, flat, scale-like, often with a bulge where the nucleus is located, are described as ____cells.
The esophagus lining and epidermis of the skin are composed of ______ cells.
Epithelial cells lining the stomach and intestines are ______.
Cells with irregular angular shapes having five or six sides are described as
Cells that are squarish cells and about as tall as they are wide, such as those in the liver, are referred to as
Neurons have multiple extensions and can be describes as:
Epithelial cells lining the intestines that are markedly taller than wide are described as being _____ shaped
egg cells and fat cells are ___ in shape
spheroidal (round or oval)
Cells that are ovoid and flat can be described as
fusiform cells may best be descried as:
Identify the types of cells that are spheroid to ovoid.
white blood cells
The type of muscle that is made up of cells that are spindle or fusiform shaped, thick in the middle and tapered toward the ends, is ___ muscle
Skeletal muscle cells are examples of the cell shape called
Match the epithelial surface name with its description.
The surface area of a cell is proportional to the ______ of its diameter, while volume is proportional to the _____ of its diameter.
As a cell doubles in diameter, its volume increases _____ while its surface area increases ____
Volume is increased by a factor of 8 in this case because it is increased by the diameter (D) to the 3rd power (D3). Surface area increases by the square of the diameter (D2). Therefore is is 4 times increased.
Fibrous cells are best described as:
Identify the major components of cells
Name of the structure that separates the inside of the cell from the environment.
The upper surface of an epithelial cell is its ____ surface.
The fluid found in cells that suspends the organelles and carries out many of the cell's metabolic process is the ______.
All of the material collectively found within the nucleus is referred to as the
A tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell
A network of fibers (protein filaments and tubules) that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement
foreign matter or stored cell products
embedded in a clear gel called cytosol/ICF
Plasma membranes, organelles, and cytoplasm are all major components of ______.
The cell contents are separated from the external environment by the ____
The clear, gelatinous substance in which the organelles and other internal structures of a cell are suspended is known as ______.
An adjective to describe the inside of the cell is _____.
The substance between the nucleus and plasma (surface) membrane is called ________.
(NOT nucleoplasm bc it is the fluid within the nucleus
fluid between cells
found within blood vessels
Material found within the nucleus is called the ________.
Where is cytoplasm found
is found between nucleus and plasma membrane
Material found within the nucleus
Another word for intracellular fluid is ______.
Interstitial fluid is ___ the cell, while intracellular is ___ the cell
The body fluid located between cells is called ________.
The clear, gelatinous substance in which the organelles and other internal structures of a cell are suspended is known as
cytosol or intracellular fluid
Identify examples of extracellular fluid.
(body fluid that is not contained in the cells)
The term used to refer to the space inside a cell is
The contents of cell between the plasma membrane and nucleus; includes the cytosol, organelles, inclusions, and cytoskeleton
Extracellular fluid is any body fluid located ______.
Identify the pair of words that have the same meaning.
Cytosol; intracellular fluid
In a plasma membrane, the phospholipids are arranged in a bilayer with the _______ facing the water on each side of the membrane.
hydrophilic phosphate-containing heads
In the body, tissue fluid is found _______.
between the cells
A cell is enclosed by a plasma (cell) membrane made primarily of lipids (phospholipids and cholesterol) and
Blood plasma and interstitial fluid are examples of ______.
The plasma membrane is made up of phospholipids, proteins, and _____.
Identify the functions of the plasma membrane:
Governs interactions with other cells
Controls passage of material into and out of the cell
Defines the cell boundaries
Body fluids located outside of a cell are called ____.
The side of the membrane that faces the cytoplasm is the _____ face of the membrane
The plasma membrane can be described as
an oily film of lipids with proteins embedded in it
Name the primary components of the plasma membrane.
proteins and lipids
Based on number of molecules, the majority of the molecules in the plasma membrane are:
The plasma membrane can be described as a bilayer of ________ with associated _______,
Approximately what percent of lipids in the cell membrane are phospholipids?
One of the major function of the plasma membrane is:
controlling the passage of material into and out of the cell
The primary function of the plasma membrane phospholipids is ______.
creating a flexible hydrophobic barrier between the cytoplasm and the cell's exterior
The fluidity of the plasma membrane is primarily provided by the
NOT cholesterol bc they provide stiffness of the membrane
The type of molecule indicated by the arrows in the figure is a
Typically about 90%-99% of the molecules in the plasma membrane are
The molecules indicated in the figure are ______ molecules.
About 75% of the membrane lipids are
Identify the sterol molecule that constitutes about 20% of the membrane lipids.
The components of the plasma membrane that helps create a hydrophobic barrier are the ______.
The molecule primarily responsible for stabilizing the cell membrane is
Cholesterol plays important roles in the cell, including:
maintaining normal membrane fluidity
Membrane carbohydrates that are covalently bonded to lipids.
A phospholipid molecule with a carbohydrate covalently bonded to it that is found in the plasma membranes of cells is known as a ______.
adhere to surface of membrane
most are anchored to cytoskeleton and transmembrane proteins
transmembrane proteins (or integral proteins)
penetrate right through the lipid bilayer, from one side to the other
True or false: A peripheral protein is one that is typically associated with a transmembrane protein and tethered to the cytoskeleton
Abnormally low cholesterol levels can lead to:
The molecules indicated by the arrows on the figure are:
The structure marked with an arrow in the picture of a plasma membrane is a(n)
transmembrane or integral
A protein with one or more carbohydrates covalently attached to it.
The structure marked with an arrow in the figure of a cell memebrane is a:
Proteins that do not protrude into the phospholipids layer but adhere to one face of the membrane are ______ proteins.
The chemical name for the molecules indicated by the arrows is:
A protein that extends through a plasma membrane and contacts both the extracellular and intracellular fluid is called a ____ protein.
Proteins that are associated with the plasma membrane but are not embedded in the membrane are categorized as ____ proteins.
The structure marked with an arrow in the image of a plasma membrane is a:
The structure indicated by the arrow in the picture of a cell memebrane is adhered to the membrane surface. It is a ___ protein
The transmembrane proteins or protein clusters with pores that allow water and dissolved ions to pass through the membrane are called ion ___
Cell membrane proteins that bind chemical signal molecules that can not enter the cell are functioning as
Most transmembrane proteins are
The proteins that carry out the final stages of starch and protein digestion in the intestine are
A protein that is not integral to the membrane and is often attached to the cytoskeleton is a ______ protein.
A protein in the plasma membrane that has a tunnel through it for the passage of materials between the cytoplasm and extracellular fluid is known as a _____ protein.
True/False: Ion channels are constantly open.
A transmembrane proteins or protein clusters with pores that allow water and dissolved ions to pass through the membrane are called _____.
Cell membrane proteins that bind chemical signal molecules that can not enter the cell are called:
Transmembrane proteins that bind to glucose, electrolytes, and other solutes and transfer them to the other side of the membrane are called ___ proteins
carrier or transport
True or false: Enzymes are transmembrane proteins that allow water and dissolved ions to pass through the membrane
A protein in the plasma membrane that has a tunnel through it for the passage of materials between the cytoplasm and extracellular fluid is known as a(n) ___ protein
Ion channels the open or close to allow ions through at certain times are called _____ channels.
True or false: A cell identity marker is a glycoprotein that enable your bodies to tell which cells belong to it and which are foreign invaders
True or false: A cell identity marker is a glycoprotein that enable your bodies to tell which cells belong to it and which are foreign invaders
True or false: Transmembrane proteins that allow cells to adhere to each other are called carriers.
Identify the substances that carriers are responsible for moving into and out of cells in the human body.
The general term for the type of transport that requires no energy is ___ transport, while ___ transport does require ATP
passive or facilitated
Identify the forms of passive transport.
diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion
Glycoproteins and glycolipids in the cell membrane serve as
cell identity markers
The force that drives particles through a selectively semipermeable membrane in the process of filtration is _____
Transmembrane proteins that link cells to extracellular material are called
cell adhesion molecules
In physiology, the most important examples of filtration occur in the blood vessels called ___
In the kidneys, blood pressure forces fluid through gaps in the capillary wall in a process called:
indicates a movement from high concentration to lower concentration
A membrane that allows some things through and restricts others is referred to as
The net flow of water from one side of a selectively permeable membrane to the other is called
In physiology, the most important examples of filtration occur in blood vessels called:
In blood capillaries, blood pressure forces fluid through gaps in the capillary wall in a process called:
Net movement of particles from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration as a result of constant random motion is ____
A difference in chemical concentration from one point to another, as on two sides of a plasma membrane is known as a concentration ___
The plasma membrane is referred to as ______ permeable because it allows some molecules to pass, but prevents others from entering the cell.
Facilitated diffusion is the carrier-mediated transport of a solute through a membrane ____ its concentration gradient.
A fluid-filled sac within a cell is called a ______.
In physiology, the most important examples of filtration occur in the blood vessels called ____
The uptake of extracellular particles, molecules, or droplets by the invagination of the membrane and the formation of vesicles is _______.
True or false: Diffusion occurs as molecules move against their concentration gradient.
THEY MOVE DOWN
Mechanisms for moving substances across the plasma membrane that require ATP include
Down the gradient means
from a region of high to low concentrations
Up a gradient means
from a region of low to high concentration
Because the sodium-potassium pump requires the expenditure of ATP, this pump is an example of _____ transport.
The process of using a carrier to passively transport a substance through a membrane down its concentration gradient is known as ______ diffusion.
The movement of particles or fluid droplets through the plasma membrane by the process of endocytosis or exocytosis is called ___ transport
The general term for the cell process in which the membrane invaginates, forming vesicles that bring extracellular particles or droplets of fluid into the cell, is known as
Identify the three forms of endocytosis.
A type of endocytosis in which the cell ingests extracellular fluid and its dissolved solutes.
dimples form in the plasma membrane and progressively sink in until they pinch off as pinocytotic vesicles containing droplets of ECF
ex: kidney tubules
receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME)
A mode of vesicular transport in which cell surface receptors bind a specific molecule in the extracellular fluid, then cluster together to be internalized by the cell.
A form of endocytosis in which a cell surrounds a foreign particle with pseudopods and engulfs it, enclosing it in a cytoplasmic vesicle called a phagosome
*DOES NOT involve binding to receptors like RME
A mode of vesicular transport in which a secretory vesicle of a cell fuses with the plasma membrane and releases its contents from the cell; a mode of glandular secretion and discharge of cellular wastes
The sodium-potassium pump is an example of ______ transport.
The process used by the kidney tubules to reclaim small amounts of protein is:
During ______, molecules in the extracellular fluid bind to receptors on the exterior of the plasma membrane. The membrane then invaginates, forming a vesicle which brings the ECF molecules into the cell.
The movement of particles or fluid droplets through the plasma membrane by the process of endocytosis or exocytosis is called ______ transport.
Examples of receptor-mediated _____ include the uptake of cholesterol and insulin into cells.
True or false: Phagocytosis and pinocytosis are forms of exocytosis.
A form of endocytosis in which a cell surrounds a foreign particle with pseudopods and engulfs it, enclosing it in a cytoplasmic vesicle is known as
A form of endocytosis in which the plasma membrane dimples and takes in molecules dissolved in the extracellular fluid is known as ____.
The process of a white blood cell destroying bacteria by engulfing the bacteria is an example of ________.
An example of pinocytosis is
uptake of filtered protein by the kidney tubules
A process in which a cytoplasmic vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane and releases its contents out of the cell is known as ___
During receptor-mediated ___, molecules bind to receptors on the exterior of the plasma membrane. The membrane then invaginates, forming a vesicle which brings the molecules into the cell.
The release of breast milk from the mammary glands occurs by the process of:
Examples of receptor-mediated ______ include the uptake of cholesterol and insulin into cells.
The absorptive area of the intestine is increased by the presence of the
Identify the functions of cellular surface extensions
Identify examples of phagocytosis.
white blood cells engulfing
macrophages consuming cell debris
A process in which a cytoplasmic vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane and releases its contents out of the cell is known as ______.
Hairlike processes of the cell membrane that are 7 to 10 micrometers are called:
The secretion of digestive enzymes from the glands of the digestive system occurs by the process of:
The role of microvilli in the intestine is to
increase the surface area for absorption
Extensions of the plasma membrane that serve primarily to increase a cell's surface area are called ______.
Cellular movement is primarily a function of ________.
A fringe of microvilli on the apical surface of an epithelial cell, serving to enhance surface area and promote absorption
LITERALLY LOOKS LIKE A BRUSH
Small extensions of the cell membrane that play a role in absorption are called:
Hair-like projections of the cell membrane, such as those that monitor fluid in the kidney tubules, are called
Identify locations where motile cilia would be found in the body.
uterine (fallopian) tubes
internal cavities of brain and spinal cord
male reproductive ducts
The core of a cilium or flagellum, usually composed of a "9 + 2" array of microtubules that provide support and motility
A motor protein involved in the beating of cilia and flagella and in the movement of molecules and organelles within cells.
A long, motile, usually single hairlike extension of a cell; the tail of a sperm cell is the only functional flagellum in humans.
cytoplasm-filled extensions of the cell varying in shape from fine, filamentous to blunt, fingerlike processes
ex: amoeba, neutrophil, macrophage
3 types of cellular junctions
tight junctions, desmosomes, gap junctions
A zipperlike junction between epithelial cells that limits the passage of substances between them
A patchlike intercellular junction that mechanically links two cells together
A junction between two cells consisting of a pore surrounded by a ring of proteins in the plasma membrane of each cell, allowing solutes to diffuse from the cytoplasm of one cell to the next; functions include cell-to-cell nutrient transfer in the developing embryo and electrical communication between cells of cardiac and smooth muscle.
The structural basis for ciliary movement is a core called the axoneme which consists of an array of thin protein cylinders called ______.
the centriole is an organelle composed of a short cylinder of nine triplets of microtubules; an anchor for microtubules during cell division.
the subunit of two types of filaments in cells: microfilaments, one of the three major components of the cytoskeleton, and thin filaments, part of the contractile apparatus in muscle cells.
Sensory cells in the nose have non-motile cilia that bind _____ to trigger the sense of smell
The peripheral microtubules forming the core of a cilium extend into the cell and are anchored with a ______.
Identify the structures on epithelial cells in the respiratory tract, uterine tubes, ventricles of the brain, and in the testes that play an important role in moving fluids or cells through these structures.
In a cilium, the motor protein that uses ATP energy to "crawl" up an adjacent pair of microtubules is called __
The only cell in the human body with a flagellum is the ______.
The structural basis for ciliary movement is a core called the __ which consists of an array of thin protein cylinders called microtubules
A whiplike structure similar to a cilium but longer is the _________
A temporary cytoplasmic extension of a cell used for locomotion (ameboid movement) and phagocytosis is called a ______.
The peripheral microtubules forming the core of a cilium extend into the cell and are anchored with a ___
In a cilium, the motor protein that "crawls" up an adjacent pair of microtubules is called ______.
The only flagellated cells in humans is the
The layer of carbohydrate molecules covalently bonded to the phospholipid and protein molecules of a plasma membrane is known as the ______.
A whiplike cellular surface extension similar to a cilium, but longer, is a
Identify the components of the glycocalyx.
A temporary cytoplasmic extension of a cell used for locomotion (ameboid movement) and phagocytosis is called a ___
A fuzzy coat composed of membrane glycolipids and glycoproteins is called the
Identify the functions of the glycocalyx.
binding tissues together
The glycocalyx is composed primarily of
Cell junctions are responsible for:
allowing cells to communicate
The intercellular junction shown in this image is a:
Human blood types and cell identity are a result of a cell's _______.
The type of cell junction that holds cells together and seals off the space between adjacent cells making it difficult for substances to pass between them is a __ junction
This type of cell junction pulls adjacent cell membranes closely together, making it difficult for substances to pass between the cells.
Tight junctions and desmosomes are types of cell ___
The intercellular junction shown in this illustration is a __ junction
cellular junctions are responsible for
normal cell division
A ___is a cell junction that mechanically links two cells together via plaques and J-shaped proteins.
The intercellular junction shown in this image is a
A communicating area of attachment between two cells that is formed by a ringlike connexon, surrounding a pore describes a ___ junction
The intercellular junction shown in the given figure is a ___ junction
This type of cell junction completely encircles an epithelial cell near the apical surface and is found in the cells lining the stomach.
Identify structures found in the cell's interior.
What is a noncontinuous patch-like area that mechanically links two cells together via plaques and J-shaped proteins?
How is a gap junction formed?
formed by interlocking proteins that directly connect the cytoplasms of adjacent cells
How is a tight junction formed?
by the fusion of the outer layers of two plasma membranes (the outer phospholipid layers)
True or false: The cytoskeleton is composed of calcium salts.
They are composed of a system of microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules, that give the cell shape, allow movement and the routing of molecules and organelles within the cell
The intercellular junction called a ______ allows the flow of ions between cells, transmitting electrical excitation from cell to cell.
These parts of the cytoskeleton are made of the protein actin and form a network on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane.
is an uncoiled form of DNA wrapped around clusters of protein called histones
The terminal web or membrane skeleton is formed by ___ of the skeleton
The cytoskeleton is located:
in the cell interior
This cytoplasmic component is 8-10nm and resist stresses placed on a cell.
Indicate the three types of structures found in the cytoskeleton.
Where are cilia found
found on surface extensions
ex: trachea, respiratory tract
A hollow tube composed of the tubulin, which forms the centrioles, the axonemes of cilia and flagella, and part of the cytoskeleton is a ___
These components of the cytoskeleton are about 6nm thick and composed of the protein actin.
What are microfilaments made of?
What do intermediate filaments do?
maintain overall cell structure/shape
such as in hair and nails
Endoplasmic reticulum with ribosomes attached is ___endoplasmic reticulum.
Thin filaments form a network on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane called the _________.
This cytoskeleton component resist stresses placed on a cell and participates in junctions that attach some cells to their neighbors.
A hollow tube composed of the tubulin, which forms the centrioles, the axonemes of cilia and flagella, and part of the cytoskeleton is a ______.
is an organelle composed of a short cylinder of nine triplets of microtubules; an anchor for microtubules during cell division.
Two centrioles lie perpendicular to each other within a small clear area of cytoplasm called the centrosome.
The network of more tubular cisternae with no ribosomes is the ________.
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
The organelle marked with a pointer in the image of the cell is the ______.
rough endoplasmic reticulum
The endoplasmic reticulum that is covered in ribosomes is called ______, while the ______ endoplasmic reticulum has no ribosomes.
The terminal web or membrane skeleton is formed by ___of the cytoskeleton
microfilaments or thin filaments
In a non-dividing cell, the filamentous material in the interphase nucleus, composed of DNA and associated proteins is called ___
Where is chromatin located?
In the nucleus (or nucleoplasm)
Chromatin converts to ____ when the cell prepares to divide
Human cells have 46 long strands of DNA and protein located within the cell nucleus are called
A hollow tube composed of the tubulin, which forms the centrioles, the axonemes of cilia and flagella, and part of the cytoskeleton is a
The large structure indicated in the figure is the ______.
Found inside the nucleus and produces ribosomes
circle in the middle of nucleus
An extensive system of cytoplasmic tubules or channels that are lacking ribosomes is the __________.
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Using a light microscope, the most noticeable organelle visible in most cells is th
The rough endoplasmic reticulum has organelles called ___ attached to its surface
The cell organelle containing DNA, the nucleolus, and is surrounded by a double unit membrane is the
Long strands of DNA and protein located within the cell nucleus are called ______.
Which letter in the figure indicates the nucleus?
Ribosomes are produced in the __
The cell organelle containing DNA, the nucleolus, and is surrounded by a double unit membrane is the _______.
Mature red blood cells are anuclear, which means they lack a
The general term for internal structures of a cell that carry out specialized metabolic tasks is
Identify the characteristics of nucleoli.
located within the nucleus
location of ribosome formation
A pair of membranes enclosing the nucleus with pores allowing the movement of molecules in and out of the nucleus is the _______.
Organelles called __ are produced in the nucleolus
The nuclear envelope is perforated with openings called nuclear ___that regulate traffic into and out of the cell and act like a rivet to hold the two unit membranes together.
Mature red blood cells lack ______.
True or false: The smooth endoplasmic reticulum synthesizes steroids and other lipids, detoxifies alcohol and other drugs.
What is the function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum
The rough ER functions to produce proteins.
Internal structures of a cell that carry out specialized metabolic tasks are _______.
An extensive system of cytoplasmic tubules classified as rough or smooth is called the ______.
The dense masses located within the nucleus where ribosomes are formed are called _________.
A pair of membranes enclosing the nucleus with pores allowing the movement of molecules in and out of the nucleus is the nuclear ___
The network of channels, studded with ribosomes and continuous with the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope is the _________.
rough endoplasmic reticulum
The nuclear envelope is perforated with openings called nuclear ______ that regulate the movement of molecules through the envelope.
Which organelle synthesizes steroids and other lipids, detoxifies alcohol and other drugs, and manufactures all membranes of the cell?
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
The organelle whose name means "little network within the cytoplasm" is the _______.
*endoplasm means "cytoplasm inside"
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum is modified and stores calcium in:
skeletal muscle cells
The organelles that "read" coded genetic messages (messenger RNA) and assemble amino acids into proteins specified by the code are the
The type of endoplasmic reticulum called ____ ER, lacks ribosomes, synthesizes steroids and other lipids, and detoxifies alcohol and other drugs.
A granule found free in the cytoplasm or attached to the rough ER, composed of RNA and enzymes, which assembles amino acids to make proteins describes a _______.
The system of cisternae that synthesize carbohydrates and attach them to proteins or lipids to form glycoproteins or glycolipids is the ________.
The organelle marked with a pointer in the given illustration of the cell is the:
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Tolerance of drugs and alcohol is due in part to
proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum which detoxifies drugs
The organelle in this image is the ______.
The organelle composed of several parallel cisternae that modifies and packages newly synthesized proteins and synthesizes carbohydrates is called the ______
Golgi apparatus or body
Which organelle is composed of hollow complexes of protein and is responsible for degrading more than 80% of cell's proteins?
The cell tags undesirable proteins for destruction and transports them to
The membrane-bounded organelle containing a mixture of enzymes that function in digesting foreign matter, pathogens, and expired organelles is a ______.
The organelle marked with a pointer in the picture of an animal cell is the:
Lysosomes digest and dispose of worn-out mitochondria and other organelles; this process is called:
Which organelle is responsible for modifying and packaging newly synthesized proteins and carbohydrates?
The normal death of cells that have completed their function is known as ______.
Which organelle contains enzymes that break down proteins into amino acids?
Organelles that use molecular oxygen to oxidize organic molecules, producing a byproduct called hydrogen peroxide are ___
Proteasomes degrade about ______% of a cell's protein
Within mitochondria, the space between the cristae, called the ____, contains enzymes used in ATP synthesis and a small circular DNA molecule.
Identify locations in the body where peroxisomes are very abundant.
liver (bile production and excretion of waste products like hormones and drugs!)
kidneys (cleanse blood of toxins)
MAKES SENSE because peroxisomes detoxify alcohol, drugs and other blood-borne toxins and both of these organs deal with regulating toxins in the blood
The process of digestion of cells by their own internal enzymes is known as ___
autolysis, autophagy, auto digestion
auto = self
phagy = eating
The normal death of cells that have completed their function is known as
The organelle indicated by the arrow in the picture of a cell is a ____
Organelles that use molecular oxygen to oxidize organic molecules are _______.
The inner mitochondrial membrane usually has folds called ___ that project into the interior of the organelle.
cristae or crista
One of the functions of the liver is to detoxify alcohol. Which organelles would be found in high concentration in liver cells in order to help with this function?
The organelle illustrated in the given diagram is the:
The organelle composed of a short cylinder of nine triplets of microtubules is a
Two centrioles lie perpendicular to each other within a small clear area of cytosol called the ______.
centrioles are typically seen in ___ and ____to each other
is a segment of DNA in which two sister chromatids are bound.
Stored cellular products such as glycogen granules, pigments, and foreign bodies such as viruses, and intracellular bacteria, are classified as ____
The organelle composed of a short cylinder of nine triplets of microtubules is a ______.
The region of the cell indicated by the circle and arrow is the:
A centrosome is a small patch of ______ containing a pair of ______.
Which is not a phase of the cell cycle?
The cell cycle is divided into 4 main phases: G1, S, G2, and M
Name the organelles indicated in the figure.
During the synthesis (S) phase of the cell cycle:
a cell makes a duplicate copy of its centrioles and all of its nuclear DNA
The cellular area indicated by the circle and arrow is the
During the G2 phase of the cell cycle:
a cell synthesizes enzymes that control cell division as well as checks and repairs the newly copied DNA
Cell leaves the cell cycle and stops dividing in __
List phases of the cell cycle in the correct order as they occur following cytokinesis.
G1, S, G2, M
The nucleus divides during ______ phase of the cell cycle.
During a cell's life cycle, G1, S, and G2 are collectively known as which of the following?
A cell makes a duplicate copy of its centrioles and all of its nuclear DNA during ______ phase of the cell cycle.
What is the longest phase of the cell cycle?
Cells that leave the cell cycle and cease to divide for days or years are said to be in the ______ phase.
During the part of interphase called the ______ phase, the cell produces enzymes that control cell division. It will also checks on and repairs the newly copied DNA.
Somatic cells such as hepatocytes and epithelial cells reproduce via the process of ___
During the M phase of the cell cycle:
the nucleus divides
Identify the stages of mitosis
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
Identify the phases that are part of interphase.
G1, S, G2
The stage of mitosis indicated in the figure is:
Prophase (Step 1)
The stage of mitosis indicated in the figure is:
Metaphase (Step 2)
The stage of mitosis indicated in the figure is:
Name the phase of the cell cycle that runs from the end of cytokinesis to the beginning of the next prophase.
The M or mitotic phase starts with ___
Cells which leave the cell cycle and cease to divide for days or years are said to be in the ___ phase
The form of cell division in which a cell divides once and produces two genetically identical daughter cells is known as ______.
Identify the events that occur during prophase.
1. nuclear envelope disappears
2. centrioles migrate to the poles
3. chromosomes condense
4. spindle fibers grow from the centriole
Rank the stages of the cell cycle from beginning to end, starting with interphase
Chromosomes are composed of two genetically identical parts called chromatids, joined at a pinched spot called a
Some spindle fibers grow toward the chromosomes and attach to the platelike complex called ____ on each side of the centromere
The stage of mitosis indicated in the figure is:
Chromosomes are composed of two genetically identical parts called ___, joined at a pinched spot.
During prophase, the centrioles begin to sprout microtubules called ______ fibers.
Spindle fibers attach to chromatids at a protein complex called a _______.
Chromosomes are composed of two genetically identical parts called chromatids, joined at a pinched spot called a _______.
The stage of mitosis shown in this figure is ______.
The mitotic spindle is formed by the _______.
The stage of mitosis indicated in this illustration is ______.
During which phase of mitosis do the spindle fibers begin to separate and pull the sister chromatids to opposite poles of the cell?
The stage of mitosis in the provided picture is
The lemon-shaped arrangement of spindle fibers seen during metaphase is called the ______.
During which stage of mitosis do chromosomes gather at the poles, chromatin decondenses, the new nuclear envelopes form, new nucleoli appear, and the spindles vanish.
The division of the cytoplasm to form two cells is called
Undifferentiated cells that are not yet performing any specialized function, but that have the potential to differentiate into one or more types of mature functional cells are called ______ cells.
Anaphase may best be described as:
spindle fibers begin pulling the sister chromatids to opposite poles
Stem cells have various degrees of developmental _____, or diversity of mature cell types to which they can give rise.
its plasticity meaning being able to mold allows scientists to manipulate to our benefit such as therapy (replace lost brain cells or add to spinal chord)
ability to be molded
What type of stem cells are found in small numbers in mature organs and tissues throughout a person's life?
NOT embryonic because they are found in embryonic state not in mature person.
Which stem cells have the most limited plasticity?
Cytokinesis is the division of the cell's ___ to form 2 cells
Which stem cells are able to develop into two or more different cell lines?
embryonic stem cells can be _____
What is the ability of stem cells to differentiate into a diverse number of mature cell types called?
What are the stem cells that can develop into any embryo cell type but not the accessory structures of pregnancy called?
Stem cells that can differentiate into any type of cell, including the accessory structures of pregnancy
cell with limited potential to develop into many types of differentiated cells
cells that can produce only one mature cell type
Stem cells that make up the early human embryo are ______ stem cells.
Compared to adult stem cells, embryonic stem cells are
easier to isolate
A ___ stem cell has the potential to develop into 2 or more cell lines
______ cells are stem cells that can develop into any cell type of a developing embryo but not into the accessory organs of pregnancy.
Adult stem cells that are currently used in therapeutic applications include:
skin and bone marrow
Cytokinesis is the division of the cell's __ to form 2 cells
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