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A&P II Module 3
Terms in this set (84)
What are the 5 special senses?
vision, taste, smell, hearing, equilibrium
what are the two parts of the outer layer of the eye?
sclera and cornea
white of the eye; maintains the shape of the eye and protects the delicate inner layers of tissue
the transparent outer covering of the eye; allows light to enter
fluid in the eye, found between the cornea and the lens
What is included in the middle layer of the eye?
choroid, ciliary muscle, iris
darkly colored layer between retina and sclera
-prevents light from dispersing throughout the eye (refraction)
-supplies nutrients and blood to layers of the eye (highly vascular)
Ciliary body and muscle
muscle attached to the lens to help change the shape of the lens
-allows focus of near and far objects
controls amount of light that enters the pupil
-uses muscle fibers to contract or dilate the pupil
the pupil is a hole in the
posterior to the iris and pupil; circular ciliary muscle attaches all the way around the lens
the inner sensory layer is the
what are the two types of photoreceptors?
rods and cones
more numerous cells that function in dim light and are sensitive to bright light; do not generate sharp or color images
function in bright light to generate sharp color images
the interior of the eye (posterior to the lens) is filled with
the vision pathway begins in the ___ crosses at the ___ and moves through the ___ to the ___ and finally terminates at the ___
optic nerve; optic chiasm; optic tracts; LGN; primary visual area in temporal lobe
where is the LGN located?
nasal visual fields
visual fields closest to the nose of each eye (medial side)
peripheral visual fields
lateral side of each eye
what allows for 3D vision?
overlapping information in the nasal visual fields called the binocular visual field
what optic nerves cross at the optic chiasm?
only them medial fibers
the medial rectus turns the eye
which extrinsic muscles are innervated by CN III (occulomotor)
medial rectus, inferior rectus, superior rectus, inferior oblique
which extrinsic muscle is innervated by CN IV (trochlear)
which extrinsic muscle is innervated by CN VI (aducens)
injury to right occipital lobe causes
bilateral left visual field cut
injury in the right optic nerve causes
right eye to go blind (unable to perceive anything from left or right visual field of the right eye)
moves eye medially
depresses eye and turns it medially
elevates eye and turns it medially
elevates eye and turns it laterally
depresses eye and turns it laterally
moves eye laterally
hardening and cloudiness of the lenses over time
patient test for diplopia
look left and right with head still, eye will be unable to rotate laterally due to lateral rectus not receiving neuron signals from abducens nerves, affected eye deviates medially when looking straight
the external ear consists of what structures?
auricle, external acoustic canal, tympanic membrane
the middle ear consists of
malleus, incus, stapes (ossicles)
inner ear (labyrinth)
oval and round window
openings that connect the middle ear to inner ear
connects to 3 semicircular canals. that contain equilibrium receptors to provide the body's vestibular system
3 semicircular canals
filled with fluid, detects motion that cause action potentials to be sent along the vestibular branch of CN VIII
balance and upright position
spiral, bony chamber containing membraneous endolymph-filled cochlear duct
the cochlea houses the
organ of Corti
organ of Corti
sense organ for auditory system that contains the tectorial membrane
moves and bends attached sterreocilia that initiation an action potential in neurons to carry signal through the cochlear nerve branch of CN VIII
the cochlea terminates at the
lies within the. bony labyrinth and contains the utricle and saccule
utricle and saccule
contain tiny stones that help with balance and equilibrium
why is the auditory system unique?
the ascending pathways cross in addition to sending signals to the same side of the brain which results in sounds from both ears being equally interpreted on the left and right sides of the brain
what bone touches the inner ear to transmit vibrations?
the inner end of the external acoustic meatus terminates at the
tympanic membrane (eardrum)
earwax that traps debris and foreign materials
what is the purpose of the auricle?
shaped to funnel sound waves into the external acoustic meatus (canal) so sound can be detected
the movement of stereocilia stimulates neurons to send impulses through ___ nerve to the ____ lobe of the brain
the cochlear nerve to the temporal lobe
damage to the nerve pathway
damage to the outer or middle ear
olfactory nerves contain what type of receptor cells?
bipolar receptor cells
the olfactory nerves travel through what. bone?
Ethmoid (cribriform plate)
what is the order of the olfactory nerve pathway?
Olfactory nerves → olfactory bulbs → olfactory tracts→ temporal lobes
what is "smell"?
combination of a limited number of primary odors that are able to be detected by the brain
what is the anatomical word for taste?
compact mass of chewed food prepared by the tongue and teeth
3 types of papillae on the tongue
circumvallate, fungiform, filiform
which papillae contain tastebuds?
circumvallate and fungiform
function of the tongue
gripping food and repositioning it between the teeth
the highest point; tip of tongue
attached to the floor of the posterior surface of the mouth
located on the interior surface of the tongue along the midline (part of tongue you see attached when you elevate tongue)
raised bumps that contain taste buds; help grip food on the tongue
contain chemical receptors that are stimulated by the chemical composition of food
what 3 types of cells are taste buds formed by?
gustatory cells, supporting. cells, basal cells
chemoreceptor cells inside a taste bud, terminated in a gustatory hair that projects into the saliva to detect dissolved chemicals
form the bulk of the taste bud, separate the taste receptor cells from one another
stem cells that divide and differentiate into new supporting cells to form new gustatory cells
temperature receptors (both hot and spicy)
5 primary tastes
sweet, salt, savory (umami), sour, bitter
the taste pathway sends signals via which cranial nerve?
CN VII (facial) and CN IX (glossopharyngeal)
loss of smell; common after TBI or growing tumor
loss of sensation of taste; can be caused by nasal congestion, TBI or brain tumor
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