Chapter 30 plant diversity II: the evolution of seed plants
Terms in this set (39)
Producing two kinds of sports: mega sporangia produce megasporangia that give rise to female gametophyte and microsporangia produce microspores that give rise to male gametophyte.
They produced one kind of spor which usually gives rise to a bisexual gametophyte
A layer of sporophyte tissue the envelopes and protects the megasporangium. Gymnosperm megasporangia are surrounded by one in integument, whereas those in angiosperm usually have two integuments
The whole structure which includes the megasporangium, megaspore, and their integuments. Inside and I love you is a female gametophyte develops from a megaspore and produces one or more eggs
A micro sport develops into this, that consists of a male gametophyte enclosed within the pollen wall.
The transfer of pollen to the part of a seed plant that contains the ovule. If a pollen grain germinates, it gives rise to a pollen tube that discharges sperm into the female gametophyte within the ovule,
What advantages do seeds provide over spores?
Sports are usually single celled, whereas seats are multicellular, consisting of an employee protected by a layer of tissue, the seed coat. A seed can retain dormant for days, months, or even years after being released from the parent plan, whereas most boards have shorter life time. Also, unlike sports, seats have a supply of stored food.
Cone bearing plants such as Pines fir and redwoods most gymnosperm are conifers. they are heterosporous.
What three key reproductive adaptation to seed plant evolution include?
1. The miniaturization of their gametophyte
2. The appearance of paulin as an airborne agent that brings gametes together
3. The advent of the seed as a resistant, dispersible stage in the life cycle
name the four plant phyla that are gymnosperm
300 species of living have large cones and palm like leaves. Unlike most seed plants, they have flagellated sperm, indicating their descent from seedless vascular plants that had multiple sperm. They thrive during the Mesozoic era, known as the age of cycads as well as the age of the dinosaurs. Today however they are the most endangered of all plant groups.
Ginko biloba is the only surviving species of this phylum: like cycads Ginko have flagellated sperm also known as the maidenhair tree, ginkgo biloba has deciduous fun like leaves that turns cold in autumn. It is a popular ornamental tree and cities because it tolerates air pollution well. Landscapers often plan only paulin producing trees because the fleshy seed smell rancid as they decay
Phylum Gnetophyta includes plants in three genera: Gnetum, ephedra, and welwitschia. Some species are tropical, whereas others live in deserts. Although very different in appearance the genera are grouped together based on molecular data
The largest gymnosperm phyla consists of about 600 species of conifers including many large trees. Most species have woody cones but if you have fleshy cones. Some such as Pines have needle - like leaves. Others, such as redwoods, have skill - like leaves. Some species dominate vast northern forest, whereas others are native to the southern hemisphere. Most are evergreens: they retain their leaves throughout the year. Even during winter, a limited amount of photosynthesis occurs on sunny days. When spring comes conifers already have fully developed leaves that can take advantage of the sunny here, warmer days. Some conifers such as the dawn redwood, tamarack and larch are deciduous trees that lose leaves each autumn.
What are two key adaptations of the Angiosperm in the phylum Anthophyta
Flowers and fruits
Its a unique angiosperm structure specialized for sexual reproduction. In many species, insects or other animals transfer pollen from one flower to the sex organs on another flower it can have up to 4 types of modified leave called floral organs: sepals, pedals, stamens, carpels
Are usually green and enclose the flower before it opens are sterile floral organs that do not produce sperm or eggs.
Are brightly colored in most flowers and aid in attracting pollinators. are sterile floral organs that do not produce sperm or eggs.
Produce microspores that develop into pollen grain containing male gametophyte. Consists of a stock called the filament and an internal sac which is the anther , where pollen is produced.
Make megaspores and their products, female gametophyte. It is the container mentioned earlier in which the seeds are enclosed.
Located at the tip of the carpel. It is sticky and this is where pollin is received
Leads from the stigma to a structure at the base of the carpel, the ovary: the ovary contains one or more ovules. If fertile eggs, and develops into a seed
Flowers that have all four organs
Those that like one or more of these organs
Us seats develop from ovules after fertilization, the ovary walk the kids and the ovary matures. Fruits protect seeds and aid in their dispersal.
Each of you, which develops into the ovary contains a female gametophyte also known as an embryo sac
Which in angiosperm is the transfer of pollen from an answer of a flower on one plant to the stigma of a flower on another plant of the same species cross pollination enhances genetic variability.
A port in the integument of the ovule and discharges two sperm cells into the female gametophyte.
And which one for the PlayStation event produces a cycle and the other produces a triploid cell, it is unique to angiosperm.
Tissue rich in starch and other food reserves that nourish the developing embryo
the zygote develops into a sporophyte embryo with a rudimentary root and one or two seed leaves
What is the function of double fertilization in angiosperm?
What type of this is is a double fertilization synchronizes the development of food storage in the seat with the development of the embryo. perhaps it is an adaptation that prevents flowering plants from squandering nutrients on unfertile ovules.
Species with one cotyledon. Cotyledons are sead leaves in the embryo.
species with two cotyledon. They are paraphyletic
The vast majority of species once categorized as dicots form a larger clade.
Surviving basil angeles perm are currently stuck to consist of religious compromising only about 100 species. The oldest lineage seems to be represented by a single species amborella trichopoda.
Consists of about 8,000 species, most notably magnolias, laurels, and black pepper plants. They include both woody and herbaceous species. Although they share some traits with basal angiosperm, such as a typical spiral rather than whorled arrangement of floral organs. They are more closely related to eudicots and monocots
About one-quarter of angiosperm species are monocots - about 70,000 species. Some of the largest groups are the orchids, grasses, and palms. Grasses include some of the most important crops, such as maize rice and wheat
More than two-thirds of angiosperm species - roughly 170,000 species. The largest group in the legume family which includes such crops as peas and beans. Also important economically is the rose family which includes many plants with ornamental flowers as well as some species with edible fruits, such as strawberry plants and apple and pear trees. Most of the familiar flowering trees such as oak, walnut, maple, willow, and birch.