Terms in this set (87)
cognitive processes that influence the ability to think and learn on all intellectual tasks
ability to think on spot. Drawing inferences and understanding relations between concepts that have not been encountered previously. Closely related to adaptation to novel tasks, speed of information processing, working memory functioning and ability to control attention
factual knowledge about the world: knowledge of word meanings, provincial and territorial capitals, answer to arithmetic problems, and so on. Reflects long term memory for prior experiences and is closely related to verbal ability
crystallised intelligence increases steadily from early in life to old age, whereas fluid intelligence peask around age 20 and slowly declines thereafter. Brain areas are most active in the two types of intelligence also differ: the prefrontal cortex is usually especially active on measures of fluid intelligence but tends to be much less active in measures of crystallised intelligence
seven primary mental abilities
word fluency, verbal meaning, reasoning, spatial visualisation, numbering, rote memory and perceptual speed
usefulness of dividing intelligence
scores on various tests of a single ability tend to be correlate more strongly with one another than do scores on tests of different abilities.
numerous, distinct processes. Information processing analyses of how people solve intelligence test items and how they perform everyday intellectual tasks such as reading, writing and arithmetic
three stratum theory of intellignece
top of hierarchy is g, middle are several moderately general abilities, bottom: specific processes
fluid intelligence, crystalised intelligence, general memory and learning, broad visual perception, broad auditory perception, broad retrieval ability, broad cognitive speediness, processing speed
viewed as an invisible capacity to think and learn, any measure of it must be based on observable behaviour.
not part of intelligence at 4 months of age, because infants this young neither produce nor understand words, but it is obviously a vitual part of intelligence at 4 years of age.
greatest success and widest application with children who are at least 5 or 6 years old. Exact abilities examined, and the items used to examine them vary.
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
most widely used test instrument for children 6 and older. Measures the abilities because they reflects skills that are important within information-processing theories correlate positively with other aspects of intelligence, and are related to important outcomes, notably school grades and later occupational success
continuity of IQ scores
same children's IQ scores at different ages have shown impressive continity from age 5 onwards.
stability of iQ
close in time that IQ tests are given, more stability found. Person's IQ scores at different ages tend to be similar, the scores are rarely identical.
random variation in factors such as the child's alertness and mood on the test days. Verbal and nonverbal changes in IQ during the adolescent years were closely related to change in brain structure. Some of these changes were predicted by reading ability.
IQ scores and school grades
correlate positively and strongly with school grades and achievement test performance.
gatekeepers, determining which students gain access to the training and credentials required for entry into lucrative professions.
ability to inhibit actions, follow rules, and avoid impulsive reactions - more predictive of changes in report card marks betwen grade 5 and 9 than IQ scores, though IQ score is more predictive of changes in achievement test scores over the same period
skills that are useful in everyday life but not measured by traditional intelligence tests, predicts occupational success beyond the influence of IQ scores.
Genes, Environment, and the development of intelligence
bioecological model of development - envisions children's lives as embedded within a series of increasingly emcompassing environments. Child with unique set of qualities including his or her genetic endowement and personal experiences
genetic contribution to intelligence
genetic influences varies greatly with age. Moderate in early childhood and becomes large by adolescence and adulthood.
IQ scores of adopted children
become increasingly correlated with bbiological children. Genetic processes do not exert their effects until late childhood or adolescence. Children's increasing independence with age allows them greater freedom to choose environment that are compatible with their own genetically based preferences but not necessarily with those of that parents.
involve three types of processes: passive, evocative, and active
arise when children are raised by their biological parents. Occur not because of anything the children do but because of the overlap between their parents' genes and their own. Children whose genotypes predispose them to enjoy reading are likely to be raised in homes with plentiful access to reading
children's eliciting or influencing other people's behaviour. Even if a child's parents are not avid readers, they will read more bedtime stories to a child who is interested in the stories than to one who is uninterested
children choosing own environments that they enjoy. High school student who likes reading will borrow books from the library and obtain books in other way
type of intellectual environment that parents establish in the home is almost certainly influenced by their genetic makeup. Almost all studies using hte HOME have focused on families in which children lived with their biological parents. Parents' genes influence both the intellectual quality of the home environment and children's IQ scores; thus, the home intellectual environment as such may not cause children to have higher or lower IQ scores. ``
shared and non-shared family environments
family intellectual environment is often taken to mean characteristics that are the same for all children within the family: parents' emphasis on education, the number of books in the house, the frequency of intellectual discussions around the dinner table and so on.
influence of non-shared environment
increases with age, and the influence of the shared environment decreases with age. Children from low income families, the shared environment accounts for more of the variance in the IQ scores and academic achievement than genetics does.
influences of schooling
Children who were only slightly older, but who had a year more schooling did uch better than the slightly younger children in the grade below them.
IQ and achievement
rise during the school year but not during summer vacation. The way in which these changes vary with children's family backgrounds adds further support to the view that schooling makes children smarter.
discovered this widespread trend. Average IQ scores have consistently risen over hte past 80 years. Improvements in the lives of low income families, improved nutrition, health, and formal education.
IQ scores is increased sociatal emphasis on abstract problem solving
scores on test of fluid intelligence, reflects abstract problem solving and reasoning, have increased much more than scores on tests of crystallised intelligence. Increases in fluid intelligence might be experience with new technologies.
effects of poverty
Chronic inadequate diet early in life can disrupt brain development; missing meals on a given day can impair intellectual functioning on that day; reduced access to health services cna result in greater number of absences from school; conflicts between adults in the household can produce emotional turmoil that interferes with learning; insufficient intellectual stimulation can lead to a lack of background knowledge needed to understand new material
low income parents who, relative to others with similar incomes, are responsive to their children and provide them with safe play areas and varied learning materials have children with higher IQ scores
multiple intelligences theory
people possess eight kinds of intelligence: the linguistic, logical-mathematical, and spatial abilities, musical, naturalistic, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal abilities
deficits shown by people with brain dmage. Interpersonal intelligence was distinct from other types of intelligence. existence of prodigies, Mozart who displayed musical jgenius but was unexceptional in others.
theory of successful intelligence
intelligence as the ability to achieve success in life, given one's personal standards, within one's sociocultural context. Success is life reflects people's ability to build on their strengths, to compensate for their weaknesses.
success dependes on 3 types of ability
analytic, practical and creative
involves the linguistic, mathematical and spatial skills that are measured by traditional intelligence tests
reasoning about everyday problems, such as how to resolve conflicts with other people
intellectual flexibility and innovation that allow adaptation to novel circumstances.
five stages of reading development
typical path to mastery
birth until the beginning of grade 1. Many children acquire key prerequisites for reading. Include knowing the letters of the alphabet and gaining phonemic awareness
knowledge of the individual sounds within words
grades 1 and 2. Children acquire phonological recoding skills
phonological recoding skills
ability to translate letters into sounds and to blend the sounds into words
grades 2 and 3. Children gain fluency in reading simple material
grades 4 to 8. Children become able to acquire resonably complex, new information from written text. Read to learn
grades 8 to 12. Adolescents acquire skill not only in understanding information presented from a single perspective but also in coordinating multiple perspectives. Ability enables them to appreciate the subtleties in sophisitcated novels and plays
before formal schooling, preschoolers begin to develop important skills that set the stage for the development of reading. Acquired through home or preschool literacy environment.
correlated with later reading achievement and a cause of it. CHildren with greater phonemic awareness read more and read better, which, in turn, leads to further increases in their phonemic awareness and in the quantity and quality of their reading
crucial not only to reading comprehension but also to its enjoyment. 40% of grade 4 students who were poor at identifying words said they would rather clean their rooms than read.
words can be identified through
phonological recoding and visually based retrieval. Phonological recoding involves converting the visual form of a word into a verbal, speech-like form and using the speech-like form to determine the word's meaning
Visually based retrieval
involves processing a word's meaning directly from its visual form
strategy choice process
which they choose the fastest approach that is likely to allow correct word identification. Context of reading, means that on easy words, children rely heavily on the fast but not always accurate approach of visually based retrieval, on hard words, they result to the slower but surer strategy of phonological recoding.
rely heavily on phonological recoding, because the associations between words' visual forms and their sounds are too weak to allow much use of retrieval. Correct use of phonological recoding increases the association use of visually based retrieval. Shift to retrieval occurs most rapidly for waords on which children most often execute phonological recoding correctly
to represent the situation or idea being depicted in the text and continuously updating it as new information appears. Basic processes, strategies, metacognition, and content knowledge - also influence the development of reading comprehension.
encoding and automatisation are crucial to reading comprehension. Children who are able to identify the key features of stories will understand the story better, and children who are able to automatically identify the key features of words will have more cognitive resources left to devote to comprehension.
development of reading comprehension
aided by acquisition of reading strategies. Good readers proceed slowly when they need to master written material in depth and speed up when they need only a rough sense of it.
10 years old
reads everything at the same speed
increasingly monitor their ongoing understanding and reread passages they do not understand. Differentiates good readers from poor ones at all age.
begins even before children start school. Hearing stories told or read by parents helps preschoolers learn how such stories tend to go, facilitating their understanding of new stories once they read themselves. Enhances their general level of language development. Partially accounts for the differences between the reading comprehension skills of children from middle and low income families.
begins before children receive formal schooling. Preschoolers' writing indicates that they expect meaning to be reflected in print. Use more raks to represnt words that signify many objects. When asked to guess which of several words in the name of a particular object, they generally choose longer words for lager objects.
generating written text
with development of reading comprehension, growth of writing proficiency reflects improvements in basic processes, strategies, metacognition, and content knowledge. Automatizing low level skills such as spelling and punctuation make writing easier to understand but also because automatising the low level skills frees cognitive resources for pursuing the higher level communicative goals of writing. Children's proficiency at low level skills such as spelling correlates positively with the quality of hte children's essays
a set of actions or events that occurs repeatedly.
depends on strategies they use, the precision of their representations of numerical magnitudes, and their understanding of basic mathematical concepts and principles
age 4 or 5, most children begin to learn arithmetic they use a variety of problem solving strategies. Counting and retrival. Gradually expand their use to a wider range of single digit problems
counting on from the larger addend
counting 9, 10, 11
dividing a problem into two easier ones
numerical magnitude representations
mental models of the way quantities are ordered along a less to more dimension. 7 is always larger than 6.
symbolic numerical magnitudes
closely related to understanding arithmetic and indeed to mathematics achievement in general. Evident in arithmetic errors, whose magnitudes usually are close to the correct answer rather than far from it.
children who more accurately estimate whole number magnitudes on number lines have higher math achievement.
more accurate magnitude representations help children learn arithmetic. The more precisely a child understands numerical magnitudes, as measured by his or her accuracy in estimating the position of numbers on a number line, the greater the child's arithmetic proficiency.
accurate magnitude representation
may enhance arithmetic learning by suggesting plausible answer and eliminating implausible ones from consideration
idea that the values on the two sides of the equal sign must balance.
gesture speech mismatches
gesturing coveys more information than their verbal statements, learn more from instruction on mathematical equality problems than do peers whose gesturing and speech before the instruction were consistent
children who are encouraged ot gesture appropriately while explaining answer sto mathematical equality problems learn more than children encouraged not to gesture. Variability of thought and action often indicates heightened readiness
negative emotional state that leads to fear and avoidance of math. Evident as early as grade 1 and for many people present a lifelong problem.
whether they are motivated by learning goals, seeking to receive positive assessments of their competence or to avoid negative assessments.
incremental view of intelligence
belief that intelligence can be developed through effort. Focuses on mastery - meeting challenges and overcoming failures - generally expects efforts to be successful
belief that intelligence is fixed.
tend to base their sense of worth on the approval they receive from other people about their intelligence, talents, and personal qualities. To feel good about themselves, they seek out situations in which they can be assured of success and receive praise, they avoid situations where they might be cricised
based more on their own effort and learning and not on how others evaluate them. Do not equate failure on a task with a personal flaw, they can enjoy the challenge of a hard problem and persist in the attempt to solve it
rooted in the idea that a person's level of inteligence is fixed and unchangable. Include the belief that success or failure in academic situations depends on how smart one is. Children with entity theory of intelligence focus on outcomes - success or failure - not on effort or learning from mistakes.
rootedi n the idea that intelligence can grow as a function of experience. Believe that academic success is achievable through effort and persistence. Focus on what they have learned, even when they have failed, and they believe that they can do beter in the future by trying harder
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