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Medical Terminology Glossary
Terms in this set (429)
A blood type
Part of the ABO blood group classification of antigens on the surface of erythrocytes (red blood cells). A blood type means individuals in the A group have the A antigen on erythrocytes.
Relating to the abdomen and pelvis, especially the abdominal and pelvic regions of the body
Plastic surgery on the abdomen.
(1) Lateral movement of the limbs away from the median plane of the body, or lateral bending of the head or trunk.
(2) Movement of the digits away from the axial line of a limb.
(3) Outward rotation of the eyes.
An actual or relative increase in the acidity of blood due to an accumulation of acids (as in diabetic acidosis or renal disease) or an excessive loss of bicarbonate (as in renal disease).
(1) An inflammatory disease of the sebaceous follicles of the skin, marked by comedones, papules, and pustules.
(2) Acne vulgaris.
A chronic syndrome of growth hormone excess, most often caused by a pituitary macroadenoma. It is characterized by gradual coarsening and enlargement of bones and facial features.
Addison's disease (Addison disease)
A rare illness marked by gradual and progressive failure of the adrenal glands and insufficient production of steroid hormones.
Movement of a limb or eye toward the median plane of the body or, in the case of digits, toward the axial line of a limb.
Excision of a gland.
Inflammation of lymph nodes or a gland.
A malignant tumor arising from a glandular organ.
A benign (not malignant) tumor made of epithelial cells, usually arranged like a gland.
Swelling and morbid change in lymph nodes; glandular disease.
Swallowing of air.
Excision of one or both adrenal glands.
Any disease of the adrenal glands.
British designation for epinephrine.
(1) A type of antigen-antibody reaction in which a solid cell or particle coated with antigens drops out of solution when it is exposed to a previously soluble antibody.
(2) Adhesion of surfaces of a wound.
The specific antigen that stimulates the recognition of an agglutinin, or antibody; used primarily in reference to laboratory testing for antibodies against specific blood types.
A nongranular leukocyte.
An uncommon cause of hypertension, in which the blood contains abnormally high levels of aldosterone, a mineralocorticoid usually produced by the adrenal glands.
The digestive tract from the mouth through the anus.
allogeneic transplantation (allogeneic transplant)
Transplantation of material from a donor to another person.
Absence or loss of hair, esp. of the head.
Pert. to an alveolus.
Alzheimer's disease (Alzheimer disease)
A chronic, progressive, degenerative cognitive disorder that accounts for more than 60% of all dementias.
Reduction or dimness of vision, esp. that in which there is no apparent pathologic condition of the eye.
A loss of memory.
Transabdominal puncture of the amniotic sac under ultasound guidance using a needle and syringe in order to remove amniotic fluid.
A type I hypersensitivity (allergic) reaction between an allergenic antigen and immunoglobulin E (IgE) bound to mast cells, which stimulates the sudden release of immunological mediators locally or throughout the body.
Loss of cellular differentiation and function, characteristic of most malignancies.
(1) A natural communication between two vessels; may be direct or by means of connecting channels.
(2) The surgical or pathological connection of two tubular structures.
A reduction in the mass of circulating red blood cells.
Localized abnormal dilatation of a blood vessel, usually an artery; due to a congenital defect or weakness in the wall of the vessel.
Dilation of a lymphatic or blood vessel.
Development of blood vessels.
A radiographic record of the size, shape, and location of the heart and blood vessels after introduction of a radiopaque contrast medium.
(1) A description of blood vessels and lymphatics.
(2) Diagnostic or therapeutic radiography of the heart and blood vessels using a radiopaque contrast medium.
(3) Recording of arterial pulse movements by use of a sphygmograph.
A form of tumor, usually benign, consisting principally of blood vessels (hemangioma) or lymph vessels (lymphangioma).
Any disease of blood or lymph vessels.
Diminished or complete absence of secretion of sweat.
Condition in which there is excessive inequality in the size of cells, esp. erythrocytes.
Immobility of a joint.
Congenital absence of one or both testes.
Pert. to both the anus and rectum.
Loss of appetite.
In front and above.
Passing from front to rear.
anticoagulant (use singular only)
(1) Delaying or preventing blood coagulation.
(2) An agent that prevents or delays blood coagulation.
An immunoglobulin produced by B lymphocytes in response to a unique antigen.
(1) Preventing or relieving nausea and vomiting.
(2) An agent that prevents or relieves nausea and vomiting.
A protein or oligosaccharide marker on the surface of cells that identifies the cell as self or non-self; identifies the type of cell, e.g., skin, kidney; stimulates the production of antibodies, by B lymphocytes, that will neutralize or destroy the cell if necessary; and stimulates cytotoxic responses by granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes.
A test for the presence of antibodies in human blood.
(1) Preventing or relieving itching.
(2) An agent that prevents or relieves itching.
(1) Preventing or inhibiting the functioning of the thyroid gland.
(2) An agent that prevents or inhibits the functioning of the thyroid gland.
(1) Preventing or relieving coughing.
(2) An agent that prevents or relieves coughing.
A vague uneasy feeling of discomfort or dread accompanied by an autonomic response; the source is often nonspecific or unknown to the individual; a feeling of apprehension caused by anticipation of danger.
Absence of urine formation.
Softening of the walls of the aorta.
Incision of the aorta.
Absence or impairment of the ability to communicate through speech, writing, or signs because of brain dysfunction.
apheresis, therapeutic (apheresis)
Removal of unwanted or pathological components from a patient's blood by means of a continuous-flow separator; the process is similar to hemodialysis, as treated blood is returned to the patient.
Inflammation of the vermiform appendix, caused by blockage of the lumen of the appendix and followed by infection.
(1) Inability to perform purposive movements although there is no sensory or motor impairment.
(2) Inability to use objects properly.
(1) Of the nature of water; watery.
(2) Aqueous humor.
(1) A small space or cavity in a tissue.
(2) A circular area of different pigmentation, as around a wheal, around the nipple of the breast, or the part of the iris around the pupil.
Irregularity or loss of rhythm, esp. of the heart.
Pert. to one or more arteries.
Inflammation of the arteriolar wall.
Repair or reconstruction of an artery.
A disease of the arterial vessels marked by thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity in the arterial walls.
Narrowing of the lumen of an artery; may be temporary or permanent.
The surgical immobilization of a joint; artificial ankylosis.
(1) Radiography of a joint.
(2) Radiography of a synovial joint after injection of a contrast medium.
Stiffening or hardening of the joints, esp. in the aged.
Direct joint visualization by means of an arthroscope, usually to remove tissue, such as cartilage fragments or torn ligaments, or to anneal injured tissues.
The accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity.
(1) Drawing in or out by suction.
(2) Withdrawal of fluid from a cavity by suctioning with an aspirator.
Absence of the spleen.
A form of ametropia in which the refraction of a ray of light is spread over a diffuse area rather than sharply focused on the retina.
A neuroglial cell of the central nervous system that supports neurons and contributes to the blood-brain barrier.
(1) A collapsed or airless condition of the lung.
(2) A condition in which the lungs of a fetus remain partially or totally unexpanded at birth.
Fatty degeneration or thickening of the walls of the larger arteries occurring in atherosclerosis.
Pert. to both the atrium and the ventricle.
(1) A wasting; a decrease in size of an organ or tissue.
(2) To undergo or cause atrophy.
A syndrome affecting children, adolescents, and adults characterized by short attention span, hyperactivity, and poor concentration.
An instrument for testing hearing.
Listening for sounds within the body, esp. from the chest, neck, or abdomen.
autism (autistic disorder)
(1) In classic psychiatry, mental introversion in which the attention or interest is thought to be focused on the ego.
(2) Withdrawal from communication with others, often accompanied by repetitive or primitive behaviors.
A graft transferred from one part of a patient's body to another.
A disease produced when the body's normal tolerance of the antigens on its own cells (i.e., self-antigens or autoantigens [AAg]) is disrupted.
antigen; autoantibody; autoantigen; autoimmunity; histocompatability locus antigen; inflammation
autologous transplantation (autologous transplant)
Transplantation of material from one location in the body to another site.
Presence of nitrogenous bodies, esp. urea in increased amounts, in the blood.
An increase in nitrogenous compounds, esp. urea, in urine.
The use of barium sulfate solution as a contrast agent to facilitate x-ray and fluoroscopic examination of the colon.
(1) A cell or part of a cell that stains readily with basic dyes such as methylene blue. (2) A type of cell found in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. (3) One type of granulocytic white blood cell.
Bell's palsy (Bell palsy)
Unilateral facial paralysis of sudden onset.
Not recurrent or progressive; nonmalignant.
Having two branches or divisions; forked.
Of or rel. to biochemistry.
Paralysis of an eyelid.
Drooping of the upper eyelid.
A twitching or spasmodic contraction of the orbicularis oculi muscle due to tics, eyestrain, or nervous irritability.
A gurgling, splashing sound normally heard over the large intestine; it is caused by passage of gas through the liquid contents of the intestine.
A slow heartbeat marked by a pulse rate below 60 beats per minute in an adult.
Abnormally slow breathing.
Chronic dilation of a bronchus or bronchi, usually in the lower portions of the lung, caused by the damaging effects of a long-standing infection.
One of the smaller subdivisions of the bronchial tubes.
Examination of the bronchi through a bronchoscope.
An abnormal narrowing with partial obstruction of the lumen of the bronchi due to spasm of the peribronchial smooth muscle.
An adventitious sound of venous or arterial origin heard on auscultation.
Excessive and insatiable appetite.
blood urea nitrogen.
Inflammation and thickening of the first metatarsal joint of the great toe, usually associated with marked enlargement of the joint and lateral displacement of the toe.
A state of ill health, malnutrition, and wasting.
Infection of the skin or mucous membrane with any species of Candida, but chiefly Candida albicans.
Any substance or agent that produces cancer or increases the risk of developing cancer in humans or animals.
The transformation of normal cells into cancer cells, often as a result of chemical, viral, or radioactive damage to genes.
Morbid fear of cancer.
cardiac enzyme studies
A battery of blood tests performed to determine the presence of cardiac damage.
Drugs that slow and strengthen heart muscle contractions; used to treat congestive heart failure by allowing the heart to pump more slowly and more efficiently.
Enlargement of the heart.
Pert. to the heart and lungs.
Pert. to the carpus or wrist.
carpal tunnel syndrome
Pain or numbness that affects some part of the median nerve distribution of the hand (the palmar side of the thumb, the index finger, the radial half of the ring finger, and the radial half of the palm) and may radiate into the arm.
An opacity of the lens of the eye, usually occurring as a result of aging, trauma, endocrine or metabolic disease, intraocular disease, or as a side effect of the use of tobacco or certain medications (such as steroids).
(1) A phase of schizophrenia in which the patient is unresponsive, marked by the tendency to assume and remain in a fixed posture and the inability to move or talk. (2) Stupor.
A tube passed through the body for evacuating fluids or injecting them into body cavities.
Use or passage of a catheter.
Toward the tail; in a posterior direction.
(1) Pert. to any tail-like structure. (2) Inferior in position.
Destruction of tissue with a caustic, an electric current, a hot iron, or by freezing.
A device used to destroy tissue by electricity, freezing, heat, or corrosive chemicals.
CD4 (CD4 cell count)
One of a group of proteins on the surface of lymphocytes that enhance immune recognition. AIDS; cluster of differentiation
Relating to the cerebrum.
Resembling brain tissue.
Pert. to the brain and spinal cord, as the cerebrospinal axis.
Inflammation of the cervix uteri.
A small, hard benign tumor analogous to a sebaceous cyst developing on the eyelids, formed by distention of a meibomian gland with secretion. steatoma
Inflammation of the lip.
Drug therapy used, for example, to treat infections, cancers, and other diseases and conditions.
A single genus of intracellular parasites with three recognized species: C. psittaci, C. trachomatis, and C. pneumoniae.
Tan to brown, sharply defined patches of skin pigment, usually found symmetrically on the forehead, temples, cheeks, or upper lip.
The radiographic record of the bile ducts obtained by cholangiography.
Radiography of the bile ducts, a procedure replaced by ultrasonography.
Removal of the gallbladder by laparoscopic or open surgery.
A radiograph of the gallbladder.
Radiography of the gallbladder, a procedure replaced by ultrasonography.
Suturing of the severed ends of the common bile duct.
The presence or formation of gallstones.
Bile in the vomitus.
A slow-growing, painless cartilaginous tumor.
Any disease of cartilage.
A cartilaginous sarcoma.
Pertaining to color or colors.
Any colored cell.
A scar left by a healed wound. keloid
A motion picture record of images produced during fluoroscopic examination.
Surgical removal of the end of the foreskin of the penis.
A chronic liver disease characterized pathologically by liver scarring with loss of normal hepatic architecture and areas of ineffective regeneration.
(1) Compression of the walls of a vessel. (2) Shriveling. (3) A stricture.
Pert. to or in the region of the coccyx.
A small bone at the base of the spinal column in humans, formed by four fused rudimentary vertebrae.
cognitive ability (cognitive)
The ability of the brain to process, retrieve, and store information.
cold spot (cold spots)
An area on a nuclear medicine scan in which no radioactive tracer is taken up—indicative of nonfunctioning tissue in a gland or other structure.
Visualization of the lower gastrointestinal tract; most often refers to insertion of a flexible endoscope through the anus to inspect the entire colon and terminal ileum. coloscopy
The opening of a portion of the colon through the abdominal wall to its skin surface.
Suture of the vagina.
The typical small skin lesion of acne vulgaris and seborrheic dermatitis.
A fracture in which the bone is broken or splintered into pieces.
A repetitive stereotyped act performed to relieve fear connected with obsession.
Relating to compulsion.
Inflammation of the conjunctiva.
The process of becoming solid, esp. in connection with the lungs.
In radiology, a substance used to fill hollow organs or blood vessels to highlight their internal structure or distinguish them from neighboring anatomical features.
Any operation for forming an artificial pupil.
Any of several steroid hormones secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland or manufactured synthetically for use as a drug.
An acute inflammation of the nasal mucosa accompanied by profuse nasal discharge. cold
Pain in a rib or the intercostal spaces (e.g., intercostal neuralgia).
(1) Incision through the cranium. (2) After the death of a fetus, the breaking up of the fetal skull to facilitate delivery in difficult parturition.
(1) A crackling sound heard in certain diseases, as the crackle heard in pneumonia. (2) A grating sound heard on movement of ends of a broken bone. (3) A clicking or crackling sound often heard in movements of joints, such as the temporomandibular, elbow, or patellofemoral joints, due to roughness and irregularities in the articulating surfaces.
A congenital condition caused by a lack of thyroid hormones, characterized by arrested physical and mental development, myxedema, dystrophy of the bones and soft tissues, and lowered basal metabolism.
An acute viral disease of early childhood, usually occurring from age 6 months to 3 years, marked by a resonant barking cough (described as sounding "seallike") and varying degrees of respiratory distress.
The use of extremely cold probes to destroy unwanted, cancerous, or infected tissues.
Failure of the testicles to descend into the scrotum.
(1) Scraping of a cavity.
(2) The use of a curet in removal of necrotic tissue from around the tooth, dental granulomata, or cysts and tissue fragments or debris from the bony socket after tooth extraction; also called débridement.
Cushing's syndrome (Cushing syndrome)
The signs and symptoms that result from prolonged exposure to excessive glucocorticoid hormones.
A blue, gray, slate, or dark purple discoloration of the skin or mucous membranes caused by deoxygenated or reduced hemoglobin in the blood.
Paralysis of the ciliary muscle.
The removal of a kidney stone from the bladder by crushing the particles and extracting them by irrigation.
Surgical suture of the bladder.
Examination of the bladder with a cystoscope.
A procedure in which various cells can be separated from the withdrawn blood and retained, with the plasma and other formed elements re-transfused into the donor.
The science that deals with the formation, structure, and function of cells.
A condition in which there is a greater than normal number of cells in a tissue or organ.
Destructive to cells.
T lymphocytes that can destroy microorganisms directly.
Excessive flow of tears.
The removal of foreign material and dead or damaged tissue, esp. in a wound.
An acute, reversible state of agitated confusion.
A progressive, irreversible decline in mental function, marked by memory impairment and, often, deficits in reasoning, judgment, abstract thought, registration, comprehension, learning, task execution, and use of language.
depersonalization disorder (depersonalization)
The belief that one's own reality is temporarily lost or altered.
(1) A hollow or lowered region.
(2) The lowering of a part, such as the mandible.
(3) The decrease of a vital function such as respiration.
(4) One of several mood disorders marked by loss of interest or pleasure in living.
An inflammatory rash marked by itching and redness.
A physician who specializes in treating diseases of the skin.
The science of the skin and its diseases.
Any skin disease.
Transplantion of living skin to cover cutaneous defects caused by injury, operation, or disease.
(1) One of the fetal skin segments.
(2) A knife for incising the skin or small lesions.
DEXA scan (DEXA)
Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan
A general term for diseases marked by excessive urination; usually refers to diabetes mellitus.
A chronic metabolic disorder marked by hyperglycemia.
(1) A thin membrane such as one used for dialysis.
(2) In microscopy, an apparatus located beneath the opening in the stage and permitting regulation of the amount of light passing through the object.
(3) A rubber or plastic cup that fits over the cervix uteri, used for contraceptive purposes.
(4) The dome-shaped skeletal muscle that separates the abdomen from the thoracic cavity with its convexity upward.
The passage of fluid or unformed stools.
(1) The normal period in the heart cycle during which the muscle fibers lengthen, the heart dilates, and the cavities fill with blood; diastole of the atria occurs before that of the ventricles.
(2) The period of cardiac muscle relaxation alternating with systole or contraction.
blood pressure; heart; murmur; pulse; systole
Two images of an object seen at the same time.
dissociative identity disorder (dissociative identity)
Formerly known as "multiple personality disorder," a rare, but increasingly reported, psychiatric illness in which a person has two (or more) distinct personalities.
(1) Farthest from the center, from a medial line, or from the trunk; opposed to proximal.
(2) In dentistry, the tooth surface farthest from the midline of the arch.
The secretion and passage of large amounts of urine.
(1) Increasing urine secretion.
(2) An agent that increases urine output.
A sac or pouch in the walls of a canal or organ.
Chemical messenger in the brain that is released across the synapse between cells to stimulate or inhibit an adjoining cell; a neurotransmitter.
Pain in the back.
A device for measuring x-ray output.
Excision of part or all of the duodenum.
Visualization of the venous system using an ultrasound machine (duplex scanner). The scanner can determine the direction of blood flow within the veins.
An old term meaning abnormal mixture of the four humors.
Diarrhea containing blood and mucus, resulting from inflammation of the walls of the gastrointestinal tract, esp. the colon.
Abnormal, inadequate, or impaired action of an organ or part.
Pain in association with menstruation.
Upper abdominal discomfort, often chronic or persistent, colloquially referred to as "indigestion."
Inability to swallow or difficulty in swallowing.
Impairment of speech resulting from a brain lesion or neurodevelopmental disorder.
Difficulty in speaking; hoarseness.
A long-lasting mood disorder marked by depression and unrest without apparent cause; a mood of general dissatisfaction, restlessness, anxiety, discomfort, and unhappiness.
Abnormal development of tissue.
Air hunger resulting in labored or difficult breathing, sometimes accompanied by pain.
A chronically depressed mood that is present more than 50% of the time for at least 2 years in adults or 1 year for children or adolescents.
Painful or difficult urination, symptomatic of numerous conditions.
urinary tract infection
A noninvasive diagnostic method that uses ultrasound to visualize cardiac structures.
The record made by echography.
Involuntary repetition of words spoken by others.
A severe hypertensive disorder of pregnancy characterized by convulsions and coma, occurring between 20 weeks' gestation and the end of the first postpartum week.
A general term for an itchy red rash that initially weeps or oozes serum and may become crusted, thickened, or scaly.
A local or generalized condition in which the body tissues contain an excessive amount of tissue fluid.
A record of the electrical activity of the heart, consisting of waves called P, Q, R, S, T, and sometimes U.
A device for recording changes in the electrical energy produced by the action of heart muscles.
Cauterization using a variety of electrical modalities to create thermal energy, including a directly heated metallic applicator, or bipolar or monopolar electrodes.
Amplification, recording, and analysis of the electrical activity of the brain.
rhythm, alpha; rhythm, beta; wave, theta
Removal of an embolus from a vessel.
tissue plasminogen activator
Sudden obstruction of a blood vessel by debris.
A mass of undissolved matter present in a blood or lymphatic vessel and brought there by the blood or lymph.
(1) Pathological distention of interstitial tissues by gas or air.
(2) A chronic pulmonary disease marked by an abnormal increase in the size of air spaces distal to the terminal bronchiole, with destruction of the alveolar walls.
A protrusion of the brain through a cranial fissure.
A tumor of the brain.
Surgical removal of the lining of an artery.
Within the heart or arising from the endocardium.
Infection or inflammation of the heart valves or of the lining of the heart.
(1) An internal secretion.
(2) Pert. to a gland that secretes directly into the bloodstream.
The science of the endocrine, or ductless, glands and their functions.
The presence of functioning ectopic endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity.
Inflammation of the lining of the uterus.
Inspection of body organs or cavities by use of an endoscope.
Stitching of an intestinal wound, or of the intestines to some other structure.
Involuntary discharge of urine after the age at which bladder control should have been established.
A white blood cell with a polymorphic nucleus and cytoplasmic granules that stain with eosin or other acid stains. blood for illus.; leukocyte
The outermost layer of the skin.
Located over or on the dura.
Relating to the area above the stomach, the epigastrium.
The uppermost cartilage of the larynx, located immediately posterior to the root of the tongue.
A disease marked by recurrent seizures; that is, by repetitive abnormal electrical discharges within the brain.
Incision of the perineum at the end of the second stage of labor to avoid spontaneous laceration of the perineum and to facilitate delivery.
Hemorrhage from the nose; nosebleed.
Epstein-Barr virus (Epstein-Barr)
A member of the herpes virus family, discovered in 1964.
erect standing position
The position in which a person stands upright with arms at sides and palms turned out facing forward.
Reddening of the skin.
A mature red blood cell (RBC).
Abnormally widespread redness and scaling of the skin, sometimes involving the entire body.
Inflammation of the esophagus.
Marked turning inward of the eye; crossed eyes.
(1) A condition of good health. (2) In psychiatry, an exaggerated feeling of well-being; mild elation.
Joyfulness; mental peace and tranquility.
Excision of a tissue sample for miroscopic examination, usually to establish a diagnosis.
(1) A term applied to the external secretion of a gland. (2) A term applied to glands whose secretion reaches an epithelial surface either directly or through a duct.
Originating outside an organ or part.
Abnormal protrusion of the eyeball.
Divergent strabismus; abnormal turning outward of one or both eyes.
An agent, such as guaifenesin, that promotes the clearance of mucus from the respiratory tract.
Outside the eye, as in extraocular eye muscles.
Outside a vessel.
(1) The condition of having a fenestra. (2) An operation in which an artificial opening is made into the labyrinth of the ear. (3) An operation to open the mucoperiosteum and alveolar plate of bone over the root of an infected tooth to remove the inflammatory exudate and relieve pain.
(1) Belief in some object as possessing power or capable of being a stimulus.
(2) Erotic stimulation or sexually arousing fantasies involving contact with nonliving objects, such as an article of dress or a braid of hair.
(1) Formation of fibrils. (2) Quivering or spontaneous contraction of individual muscle fibers. (3) An abnormal bioelectric potential occurring in neuropathies and myopathies.
A protein, also called factor I, synthesized by the liver and present in blood plasma that is converted into fibrin through the action of thrombin in the presence of calcium ions. blood coagulation; coagulation factor
The breakdown of fibrin in blood clots, and the prevention of the polymerization of fibrin into new clots.
(1) Containing or resembling fibers. (2) A benign tumor of the uterine myometrium.
(1) A groove, natural division, cleft, slit, or deep furrow in the brain, liver, spinal cord, and other organs. (2) An ulcer or cracklike sore. (3) A break in the enamel of a tooth.
Examination of the body using a fluoroscope.
A device consisting of a fluorescent screen, mounted either separately or in conjunction with an x-ray tube, that shows the images of objects interposed between the tube and the screen.
Fowler's position (Fowler position)
A semi-sitting position.
(1) The number of repetitions of a phenomenon in a certain period or within a distinct population, such as the frequency of heartbeat, sound vibrations, or a disease. (2) The rate of oscillation or alternation in an alternating current circuit, in contradistinction to periodicity in the interruptions or regular variations of current in a direct current circuit. (3) The rate at which uterine contractions occur, measured by the time elapsed between the beginning of one contraction and the beginning of the next.
Recurrent intense sexual urges and fantasies involving touching and rubbing against a nonconsenting person.
Destruction of tissue by means of long high-frequency electric sparks.
(1) The continuation of milk secretion at intervals after nursing has ceased.
(2) Excessive secretion of milk.
The name commonly used for immune globulin, a solution containing antibodies (immunoglobulins) to specific organisms that are obtained from human blood plasma of donors; most of these antibodies are gamma class (IgG).
immune globulin antibody; globulin; immunoglobulin
Inflammation of a ganglion.
Necrosis or death of tissue, usually resulting from deficient or absent blood supply.
(1) The housing for the imaging source and detectors into which the patient is placed for computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. (2) The portion of the radiation therapy machine (linear accelerator, cobalt unit) that houses the source of therapeutic particles.
Acute or chronic inflammation of the lining of the stomach.
Concerning the stomach and esophagus.
A physician who specializes in gastrology.
(1) Suture of an injured stomach wall. (2) Gastroplication.
Examination of the stomach using a gastroscope.
Pert. to reproduction.
In mammals, the length of time from conception to birth.
Excision of diseased gingival tissue in surgical treatment of periodontal disease.
Inflammation of the gums characterized by redness, swelling, and tendency to bleed.
A group of eye diseases characterized by increased intraocular pressure, resulting in atrophy of the optic nerve and possibly leading to blindness.
(1) A sarcoma of neuroglial origin. (2) A neoplasm or tumor composed of neuroglia cells.
One of the group of plasma proteins that controls colloidal osmotic pressure (oncotic pressure) within capillaries, participates in the immune response, and binds with substances to transport them in blood.
A form of nephritis in which the lesions involve primarily the glomeruli.
Any disease of the renal glomeruli. glomerular disease
The formation of glucose.
A simple sugar or monosaccharide, C6H12O6, that is the end product of carbohydrate digestion.
The formation of glycogen from glucose. glyconeogenesis
An abnormal amount of glucose in the urine.
Any disease of the sexual organs.
A gonad-stimulating hormone.
Examination of the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye with a gonioscope or with a contact prism lens.
A sexually transmitted infection caused by the gram-negative diplococcus Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
A common group of arthritic disorders marked by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals in joints and other tissues.
(1) Of the nature of granules. (2) Roughened by prominences like those of seeds.
A granular leukocyte; a polymorphonuclear leukocyte (neutrophil, eosinophil, or basophil).
An inflammatory response that results when macrophages are unable to destroy foreign substances that have entered or invaded body tissues.
Graves' disease (Grave disease)
A distinct type of hyperthyroidism caused by an autoimmune attack on the thyroid gland.
A physician who specializes in gynecology.
Diseases specific to women
(1) Time required for half the nuclei of a radioactive substance to lose their activity by undergoing radioactive decay. (2) Time it takes for a radioactive substance to reduce to one-half its energy due to metabolism and excretion. (3) In biology and pharmacology, the time required by the body, tissue, or organ to metabolize or inactivate half the amount of a substance taken in. (4) Time required for radioactivity of material taken in by a living organism to be reduced to half its initial value by a combination of radioactive decay and biological elimination.
A false perception having no relation to reality and not accounted for by any exterior stimulus; a dreamlike (or nightmarish) perception occurring while awake.
A drug that produces hallucinations (e.g., LSD, peyote, mescaline, PCP, and sometimes ethyl alcohol).
A benign tumor of dilated blood vessels.
The vomiting of blood.
The passage of bright red blood in the stool. melena
(1) An obsolete term for a centrifuge for separating solids from plasma in the blood. (2) The volume of erythrocytes packed by centrifugation in a given volume of blood.
The science concerned with blood and the blood-forming tissues.
A swelling comprised of a mass of extravasated blood (usually clotted) confined to an organ, tissue, or space and caused by a break in a blood vessel.
The production and development of blood cells, normally in the bone marrow.
Blood in the urine.
The iron-containing pigment of red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues.
The destruction of red blood cells (RBCs) because of RBC diseases (e.g., spherocytosis or sickle cell disease) or because of their exposure to drugs, toxins, artificial heart valves, antibodies, some infections, or snake venoms.
A group of hereditary bleeding disorders marked by deficiencies of blood-clotting proteins.
The expectoration of blood that arises from the nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, or lungs.
Veins of the internal or external hemorrhoidal plexuses and the immediately surrounding tissues.
(1) Arresting hemorrhage. (2) Any drug, medicine, surgical device, or blood component that serves to stop bleeding, such as vasopressin, gamma-aminobutyric acid, vitamin K, whole blood, or epinephrine applied locally.
An enlargement of the liver.
The protrusion of an anatomical structure through the wall that normally contains it.
Adenoma of the sweat glands.
Condition characterized by the excessive growth of hair or the presence of hair in unusual places, esp. in women.
A tissue histiocyte.
A specialist in the study of cells and microscopic tissues.
The study of the microscopic structure of tissue.
A portable device small enough to be worn by a patient during normal activity.
Treatment of diseases with hormones obtained from endocrine glands or substances that stimulate hormonal effects.
(1) A substance originating in an organ, gland, or body part that is conveyed through the blood to another body part, chemically stimulating that part to increase or decrease functional activity or to increase or decrease secretion of another hormone. (2) The secretion of the ductless glands (e.g., insulin from the pancreas).
hot spot (hot spots)
An area on the surface of the skin that, when stimulated, causes a sensation of warmth.
Huntington's chorea (Huntington chorea)
A dominantly inherited disease of the central nervous system, marked by choreoathetosis (involuntary writhing, ballistic, or dancelike movements), gradually worsening emotional and behavioral disturbances, and eventual dementia.
The accumulation of excessive amounts of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the ventricles of the brain, resulting from blockage or destruction of the normal channels for CSF drainage.
An excessive amount of calcium in the blood.
An increased amount of carbon dioxide in the blood.
Increased blood sugar, as occurs in diabetes. diabetes
A relative or absolute excess of insulin in the blood.
An excessive amount of potassium in the blood.
An increase of lipids in the blood.
Excessive proliferation of normal cells in the normal tissue arrangement of an organ.
An abnormal amount of secretion.
An abnormal sensitivity to a stimulus of any kind.
(1) Greater than normal tension or tone. (2) In adults, a condition in which the blood pressure (BP) is higher than 140 mm Hg systolic or 90 mm Hg diastolic on three separate readings recorded several weeks apart.
A disease caused by excessive levels of thyroid hormone in the body.
An increase in the size of an organ or structure, or of the body, owing to growth rather than tumor formation.
An excessive amount of uric acid in the blood.
An abnormal increase in the volume of circulating blood.
A morbid fear of falling asleep.
A condition resembling sleep in which the objective manifestations of the mind are more or less inactive, accompanied by an increased susceptibility to suggestions. autohypnosis; hypnotism; sleepwalking; somnambulism
hypochondriac (right hypochondriac)
Pert. to the region of the hypochondrium or the the upper lateral region on each side of the body and below the thorax; beneath the ribs.
A condition of the blood in which the red blood cells have a reduced hemoglobin content.
Contains a small amount of pigment, or less than the normal amount for the individual tissue.
Under or inserted under the skin, as a hypodermic injection.
An abnormally low level of glucose in the blood, often associated with neurological side effects and arousal of the sympathetic nervous system.
Mild mania and excitement, with a moderate change in behavior.
A decreased concentration of sodium in the blood.
Excision of the hypophysis cerebri.
A decrease in the amount of protein in the blood.
(1) An abnormal congenital opening of the male urethra upon the undersurface of the penis. (2) A urethral opening into the vagina.
The portion of the diencephalon comprising the ventral wall of the third ventricle below the hypothalamic sulcus and including structures forming the ventricular floor, including the tuber cinereum, infundibulum, and mamillary bodies. hormone, releasing
The clinical consequences of inadequate levels of thyroid hormone in the body.
(1) An oxygen deficiency. (2) A decreased concentration of oxygen in the inspired air.
Surgical removal of the uterus.
A hernia of the uterus, esp. when gravid.
Surgical removal of the uterus and fallopian tubes.
Surgical tool for making an incision in the uterus.
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