90 terms

Toxic plants I

Mechanism of action of insoluble calcium oxalates
plant cells have needle shaped calcium oxalate crystal that penetrate the oral mucosa, tongue and throat. Some species produce proteolytic enzymes which cause histamine and kinin release.
Plants containg insoluble calcium oxalates
Chinese evergreen, elephants ear, Jack in the pulpit, Cuckoo-pint, caladium, dumbcane, monstera, philodendron, peace lily, skunk cabbage, arrowhead vine, calla lily, umbrella tree, fishtail palm
Clinical signs of plants containing insoluble calcium oxalates
Irritation of lips, mouth, throat, vomiting
Clinical signs of the umbrella tree
GI irritation signs, tachycardia, mydriasis, seizures
What are the toxic principles of the umbrella tree?
Insoluble calcium oxalates, alkylating agent, irritant
Mechanism of action of Soluble oxalates
Hypocalcemia and precipitation of insoluble calcium oxalates in soft tissue and kidney damage
Plants containing solbule oxalates
Pigweed, purslane, greeswood, beet, lamb's quaters, rubarb, sorrel and soursop
Clinical signs of Pigweed
hypocalcemia, methemoglobinemia, renal failure
Toxic principles of pigweed
soluble oxalates, nitrate, and unknown
Clinical signs of purslane
hypocalcemia, renal damage
Toxic principles of Rubarb
Soluble oxalates in leaves, anthraquinone glycosides in leaves
Mechanism of action of Isocupressic acid
May be vasoconstriction and decreased uterine blood flow that stimulates the release of fetal cortisol and abortion
Plants containing Isocupressic acid
Ponderosa pine, monterey cypress
Mechanism of action of Quinones
primary photosensitization
Plants containing Quinones
St. John's wort, buckwheat
Clinical signs of St. John's wort
Erythema, pruritis, edema, necrosis of skin
MOA of Tannic acids
Tissue damage including GI lesions and kidney damage
Plants containing tannins
Oak tree, Pride of Barbados
MOA of Triterpene acids
Lantadene A and B cause damage of bile caniculi membranes and cholestasis. Decreased elimination of of phylloerythrin causes photosensitization
Plants containing Triterpene acids
Clinical signs of lantana
GI signs, liver damage, photosensitization
MOA of Colchine
Antimitotic by binding to tubulin and inhibiting spindle formation during cell division, causing damage to all body organs
Plants containing colchine
Autumn crocus, meadow saffron, Glory lily, climbing lily
MOA of Diterpene alkaloids
Competitive blockade of nicotinic receptors at muscle endplates similar to curare
Clinical signs due to diterpene alkaloids
sudden death in cattle, muscle weakness, stiffness, staggering, recumbency, collapse
Antidote for diterpene alkaloids
Pyostigmine, neostigmine
Plants containing Diterpene alkaloids
Larkspur, Monkshodd
MOA of Ergot alkaloids
Vasoconstiction and gangrene, uterine contraction
Plant containing ergot alkaloid
Ergot (claviceps purpurea)
MOA of Indolizidine alkaloids (swainsonine)
Inhibit lysosomal enzymes essential for formation of glycoproteins.
What plants contain swainsonine?
Locoweeds, milkvetch, Swainsona canescens in Australia
MOA of Lycorine
emetic and purgative, bulb most toxic
Plants that contain lycorine
Spider lily, barbados lily, zephyr lily, river lily
Clinical signs of the spider lily
sever vomiting and diarrhea
Clinicial signs of the barbados lily
GI signs, vomiting,paralysis, collapse
Clinicial signs of the river lily
vomiting and GI signs
MOA of Muscarine
Stimulate muscarinic cholinergic receptors, CNS stim
Plants containing muscarine
poisonous mushroom
MOA of piperidine Alkaloids
Have nicotinic effects starting with ganglionic and neuromuscular stimulation followed by ganglionic and neuro muscular blockade
Plants containg piperdine alkaloids
Poison hemlock, California or Nebraska fern, lupines, tabacco, tree tobacco, coyte tobacco
Clinical signs of tabacco plant
vomiting, diarrhea, ciruclatory collapse, cardiac arrest, seizures, tremors, resp failure
Toxic principles of the tobacco plant
Piperidine alkaloids and Pyridine alkaloids
Mechanism of action of the pyridine alkaloids
Nicotine and lobeline act on nicotinic receptors at autonomic ganglia, NM synapses and some synapses in the CNS. Low doses cause depolarization, Lg doses cause blockade
Plants that contain pyridine alkaloids
Tobacco plant, tree tobacco, Lobelia
MOA of Pyrrolizidine alkaloids
Plants that contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids
Rattlebox, Senecio, groundsel, ragwort
Clinical signs of Rattlelbox
liver damage, hepatogenic photosensitization, hepatogenic encephalopathy
MOA of Solanine and Solanidine alkaloids
GI, CNS, Resp, cardiac
Plants containing solanine and solanidine alkaloids
Black nightshade, american nightshade, Eggplant, tomato, turkey berry, chalice vine, chinese vine, chinese lantern
Clinical signs of Black nightshade and American nightshade, Eggpant
vomiting, mydriasis, drowsiness
Clinical signs of tomato
signs occur few hours from ingestion, GI signs which can last for days, CV depression, hallucination, seizures, mydriasis
MOA of taxine Alkaloid
Cardiotoxic and causes GI signs
Plants containing taxine alkaloid
Japanese Yew
Plants containing Tropane alkaloids (atropine, hyoscine, hyoscyamine)
Jimsonweed, Devil's trumpet, Angel's trumpet, Henbane
MOA of Xanthine alkaloids (coffee, theophylline, theobromine
Blocking adenosine A receptors, inhibiting phosphodiesterase
Plants containing xanthine alkaloids
Cocoa, Coffee
Clinical signs of cocoa
Vomiting, diarrhea, cardiac arrhythmias, muscle tremors, seizures, coma, death
Clinical signs of coffee
GI signs, CNS stim, muscle tremors, urination, tachycardia
MOA of anthraquinones
Toxic principle of Coffee senna
anthraquinone, unknown principle that causes skeletal and cardiac muscle degeneration and urine may be coffee colored due to myoglobineuria which may cause kidney damage.
Plants that contain anthraquinones
Cascara sagrada, coffee senna
MOA of calciongenic glycosides
Plants containing calcinogenic glycosides
Day Blooming Jasmine, Turkey berry
Clinical signs of Day Blooming Jasmine
Calcinosis and lameness
MOA of carboxyatracyloside
hepatotoxicity, excessive salivation due to mechanical injury of the mouth, may be renal damage and hypoglycemia
Plants containing carboxylatracyloside
clinical signs of cocklebur
liver damage, local mechanical irritation of skin
MOA of cardiac glycosides
Cardiotoxic by inhibiting Na/K ATPase
Plants that contain Cardiac glycosides
Fox glove, oleander, yellow oleander, Squill, Lily of the valley, milkweed, kallanchoe
MOA of Coumarin glycosides
Form dicoumarol in spoiled plants, hemorrhage due to antagonism of vit K
Plants containing coumarin glycosides
Sweet clover
MOA of cyanogenic glycosides
Release HCN on hydrolysis in damaged plants, HCN metabolized in liver to thiocynates, inhibits cellular respiration and causes vasoconstriction
Plants containing cyanogenic glycosides
Wild cherries, Johnsongrass, sudan grass, sorghum, elderberry
Clinical signs of elderberry
Vomiting and diarrhea
MOA of Cycasin
GI irritation, liver damage and is teratogenic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic.
Plants containing Cycasin
Sago palm, Japanese cycad, cardboard palm, Coontie
Toxic principle of the Sago Palm
Cycasin, BMAA is a neurotoxic amino acid, unknown toxin causes axonal degeneration in the CNS
MOA of Glucosinolate (thiocynate glycosides)
Plants containing glucosinolate
Rape seed, kale, broccoli, cabbage, brussel sprouts, turnip cauliflower, Soybean, flax
MOA of Nitropropanol glycoside
Interferes with cellular respiration, causes resp and nerologic signs in ruminants, neurologic signs in horses
Plants that contain Nitropropanol glycoside
Milkvetch, violets, lotus, indigo
MOA of phytoestrogens
Bind to estrogen receptors causing infertility
Plants containing pytoestrogens
White clover, subterranean clover, Alfalfa
MOA of protoanemonin
severe irritation of GI mucosa and dermatitis
What is protoaneomin
a volatile oil released by hydrolysis of glycoside
Plants contianing protoaneomin
Buttercup family
MOA of ptaquiloside
Death of precursor cells in bone marrow causing aplasic anemia in cattle and sheep, causes tumors of the the upper digestive tract and retinal degeneration, neoplasia in the urinary tract causing enzootic bovine hematuria
Plants containing ptaquiloside
Bracken fern
MOA of steroidal saponins
Liver damage and inability to eliminate phylloerthrin, hepatogenic photosensitization
Plants containing steroidal saponins
agave, nolina, panicum