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Mechanism of action of insoluble calcium oxalates
plant cells have needle shaped calcium oxalate crystal that penetrate the oral mucosa, tongue and throat. Some species produce proteolytic enzymes which cause histamine and kinin release.
Plants containg insoluble calcium oxalates
Chinese evergreen, elephants ear, Jack in the pulpit, Cuckoo-pint, caladium, dumbcane, monstera, philodendron, peace lily, skunk cabbage, arrowhead vine, calla lily, umbrella tree, fishtail palm
Clinical signs of plants containing insoluble calcium oxalates
Irritation of lips, mouth, throat, vomiting
What are the toxic principles of the umbrella tree?
Insoluble calcium oxalates, alkylating agent, irritant
Mechanism of action of Soluble oxalates
Hypocalcemia and precipitation of insoluble calcium oxalates in soft tissue and kidney damage
Plants containing solbule oxalates
Pigweed, purslane, greeswood, beet, lamb's quaters, rubarb, sorrel and soursop
Mechanism of action of Isocupressic acid
May be vasoconstriction and decreased uterine blood flow that stimulates the release of fetal cortisol and abortion
MOA of Triterpene acids
Lantadene A and B cause damage of bile caniculi membranes and cholestasis. Decreased elimination of of phylloerythrin causes photosensitization
MOA of Colchine
Antimitotic by binding to tubulin and inhibiting spindle formation during cell division, causing damage to all body organs
MOA of Diterpene alkaloids
Competitive blockade of nicotinic receptors at muscle endplates similar to curare
Clinical signs due to diterpene alkaloids
sudden death in cattle, muscle weakness, stiffness, staggering, recumbency, collapse
MOA of Indolizidine alkaloids (swainsonine)
Inhibit lysosomal enzymes essential for formation of glycoproteins.
MOA of piperidine Alkaloids
Have nicotinic effects starting with ganglionic and neuromuscular stimulation followed by ganglionic and neuro muscular blockade
Plants containg piperdine alkaloids
Poison hemlock, California or Nebraska fern, lupines, tabacco, tree tobacco, coyte tobacco
Clinical signs of tabacco plant
vomiting, diarrhea, ciruclatory collapse, cardiac arrest, seizures, tremors, resp failure
Mechanism of action of the pyridine alkaloids
Nicotine and lobeline act on nicotinic receptors at autonomic ganglia, NM synapses and some synapses in the CNS. Low doses cause depolarization, Lg doses cause blockade
Clinical signs of Rattlelbox
liver damage, hepatogenic photosensitization, hepatogenic encephalopathy
Plants containing solanine and solanidine alkaloids
Black nightshade, american nightshade, Eggplant, tomato, turkey berry, chalice vine, chinese vine, chinese lantern
Clinical signs of tomato
signs occur few hours from ingestion, GI signs which can last for days, CV depression, hallucination, seizures, mydriasis
Plants containing Tropane alkaloids (atropine, hyoscine, hyoscyamine)
Jimsonweed, Devil's trumpet, Angel's trumpet, Henbane
MOA of Xanthine alkaloids (coffee, theophylline, theobromine
Blocking adenosine A receptors, inhibiting phosphodiesterase
Clinical signs of cocoa
Vomiting, diarrhea, cardiac arrhythmias, muscle tremors, seizures, coma, death
Toxic principle of Coffee senna
anthraquinone, unknown principle that causes skeletal and cardiac muscle degeneration and urine may be coffee colored due to myoglobineuria which may cause kidney damage.
MOA of carboxyatracyloside
hepatotoxicity, excessive salivation due to mechanical injury of the mouth, may be renal damage and hypoglycemia
Plants that contain Cardiac glycosides
Fox glove, oleander, yellow oleander, Squill, Lily of the valley, milkweed, kallanchoe
MOA of cyanogenic glycosides
Release HCN on hydrolysis in damaged plants, HCN metabolized in liver to thiocynates, inhibits cellular respiration and causes vasoconstriction
Plants containing cyanogenic glycosides
Wild cherries, Johnsongrass, sudan grass, sorghum, elderberry
Toxic principle of the Sago Palm
Cycasin, BMAA is a neurotoxic amino acid, unknown toxin causes axonal degeneration in the CNS
Plants containing glucosinolate
Rape seed, kale, broccoli, cabbage, brussel sprouts, turnip cauliflower, Soybean, flax
MOA of Nitropropanol glycoside
Interferes with cellular respiration, causes resp and nerologic signs in ruminants, neurologic signs in horses
MOA of ptaquiloside
Death of precursor cells in bone marrow causing aplasic anemia in cattle and sheep, causes tumors of the the upper digestive tract and retinal degeneration, neoplasia in the urinary tract causing enzootic bovine hematuria
MOA of steroidal saponins
Liver damage and inability to eliminate phylloerthrin, hepatogenic photosensitization
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