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Terms in this set (84)
can be defined either negatively, as the absence of sickness, or positively, as the presence of wellness. refers to the extent to which we are able to function optimally in the face of these challenges, whether or not we have a mental illness.
Positive psychology = hierarchy of needs; self actualization
hierarchy of needs
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied , safety and security, love and belongingness, self-esteem, and self-actualization.
realism, self acceptance, autonomy, authenticity, capable of intimacy, and creativity.
know the difference between what is real and what they want. As a result, they can cope with the world as it exists without demanding that it be different
Self-accepting people have a positive but realistic self-concept, or self-image. They typically feel satisfaction and confidence in themselves, and thus they have healthy self-esteem.
all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"- self image.
trust and confidence in self
emotionally socially and intellectually independent
not afraid to be themselves. Sometimes, in fact, their capacity for being "real" may give them a certain childlike quality. They respond in a genuine, or authentic, spontaneous way to whatever happens, without pretense or self-consciousness.
capacity for intimacy
People capable of intimacy can share their feelings and thoughts without fear of rejection. They are open to the pleasure of physical contact and the satisfaction of being close to others—but without being afraid of the risks involved in intimacy, such as the possibility of rejection.
Creative people continually look at the world with renewed appreciation and curiosity.
The ability to define positive goals and to identify concrete, measurable ways of achieving them.
goal of positive psych = "to find and nurture genius and talent" and "to make normal life more fulfilling"
According to Seligman, happiness can come to us through three equally valid dimensions:
The pleasant life, the engaged life, and the meaningful life.
This life is dedicated to maximizing positive emotions about the past, present, and future, and to minimizing pain and negative emotions.
This life involves cultivating positive personality traits (such as courage, leadership, kindness, and integrity) and actively using your talents. "Engagement" also involves cultivating a capacity to "live in the moment" and immerse yourself fully in your activities. Need emo. intelligence.
An emotionally intelligent person can identify and manage his or her own emotions and respond to the emotions of others.
working with others toward a meaningful end. Many people find meaning in their connections with and service to families, friends, religious institutions, social causes, and/or work.
percent of college students report having sought counseling in their lives.
the understanding, acceptance, and respect for how much individuals differ in psychological terms—is actually a valuable asset; encountering a wide range of ideas, lifestyles, and attitudes broadens our perspectives and helps us solve problems of the social world.
Psychologist Erik Erikson
proposed that development proceeds through a series of eight stages
Developing a unified sense of self
The development of an adult identity begins in adolescence; this unified sense of self can be seen in the attitudes, beliefs, and ways of acting that are genuinely your own. This self-identification gives a sense of your uniqueness but also appreciation for what you have in common with others. It lets you view yourself realistically and be able to assess your strengths and weaknesses without relying on the opinions of others.
criteria for judging what is good and bad, and they underlie our moral decisions and behavior.
Achieving Healthy Self-Esteem
Developing a Positive Self-Concept, Meeting Challenges to Self-Esteem, NOTICE YOUR PATTERNS OF THINKING, AVOID FOCUSING ON THE NEGATIVE, DEVELOP REALISTIC SELF-TALK.
Components of self-concept
integration - An integrated self-concept is one that you have made for yourself—not someone else's image of you or a mask that doesn't quite fit.
stability - Stability depends on the integration of the self and its freedom from contradictions. People who have gotten mixed messages about themselves from parents and friends may have contradictory self-images, which defy integration and make them vulnerable to shifting levels of self-esteem. At times they regard themselves as entirely good, capable, and lovable—an ideal self—and at other times they see themselves as entirely bad, incompetent, and unworthy of love
A pattern of negative thinking that makes events seem worse than they are.
the statements you make to yourself inside your own mind.
projection, repression, denial, displacement, dissociation, rationalization, reaction formation, substitution, acting out, humor, altruism.
Reacting to unacceptable impulses by denying their existence in yourself and attributing them to others. A student who dislikes his roommate feels that the roommate dislikes him.
Keeping an unpleasant feeling, idea, or memory out of awareness. The child of an alcoholic, neglectful father remembers only when her father showed consideration and love.
Refusing to acknowledge to yourself what you really know to be true. A person believes that smoking cigarettes won't harm her because she's young and healthy.
Shifting your feelings about a person to another person. A student who is angry with one of his professors returns home and yells at one of his housemates.
Detaching from a current experience to avoid emotional distress. Rather than listen to his angry father, Beethoven composes a piece in his mind.
Giving a false, acceptable reason when the real reason is unacceptable. A shy young man decides not to attend a dorm party, telling himself he'd be bored.
Concealing emotions or impulses by exaggerating the opposite ones. A person who dislikes children frequently buys expensive gifts for, and speaks with enthusiasm about, the children of her friends.
Replacing an unacceptable or unobtainable goal with an acceptable one. A man in love with an unavailable partner throws himself into training for a marathon.
Engaging in an action that makes an unacceptable feeling go away. A person who feels disrespected and devalued gets into a fight at a bar with a stranger.
Finding something funny in unpleasant situations. A student whose bicycle has been stolen thinks how surprised the thief will be when he or she starts downhill and discovers the brakes don't work.
Serving others without expecting anything in return. A person who grew up in an upper-class neighborhood volunteers at a foundation that helps people get out of poverty.
a tendency to focus on the negative and expect an unfavorable outcome. Pessimists not only expect repeated failure and rejection but also accept it as deserved. They do not see themselves as capable of success and irrationally dismiss any evidence of their own accomplishments.
a tendency to emphasize the hopeful and expect a favorable outcome. Optimists, by contrast, consider bad events to be temporary and consider failure to be limited and look forward to new pursuits.
Expression that is forceful but not hostile
how many americans excersice to take part in physical activity to cope with stress
intermittent explosive disorder (IED)
angry outbursts, for instance, are associated with posttraumatic stress disorder. Explosive anger may also happen during periods of intoxication with alcohol or drugs such as amphetamines or cocaine. Explosive anger or rage, like a child's tantrum, renders an individual temporarily unable to think straight or to act in his or her own best interest.
reframe thinking - You'll be less angry at another person if there is a possibility that his or her behavior was not intentionally directed against you.
Distraction - counting to 10 before you respond, or start concentrating on your breathing.
when emotions or irrational thoughts interfere with daily activities and rob us of peace of mind. Genes, dysfunctional interaction between neurotransmitters and their receptors, and exposure to traumatic events may lead to disorders.
Nerve cells (neurons) communicate through a combination of electrical impulses and chemical messages. Neurotransmitters such as serotonin and norepinephrine alter the overall responsiveness of the brain and are responsible for mood, levels of attentiveness, and other psychological states. Many psychological issues are related to problems with neurotransmitters and their receptors, and drug treatments frequently target them. For example, some antidepressant drugs increase levels of serotonin by slowing the resorption (reuptake) of serotonin.
Ethnicity, Culture, and Psychological Health
Asian immigrants to the United States have often come from collectivist cultures that anticipate and care for the needs of each other, so that individuals don't need to request support. In U.S. cultures, usually no group is expected to look after the needs of an individual; rather, individuals or their close families are responsible for seeking help for themselves. biculturalism helps bring about better mental health, sometimes younger immigrants and second-generation immigrants may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of acculturation, the process by which individuals and groups adapt to each other's cultures.
Anxiety is another word for fear, in particular, fear that is not in response to any definite threat. It becomes a disorder when it occurs almost daily or in life situations that recur and cannot be avoided, interfering with your relationships and the ability to function in social and professional situations.
fear of something definite like lightning, a particular type of animal, or a place.
fear humiliation or embarrassment. Fear of speaking in public is perhaps the most common phobia of this kind. Extremely shy people can have social fears in almost all social situations.
experience sudden unexpected surges in anxiety, accompanied by symptoms such as rapid and strong heartbeat, shortness of breath, loss of physical equilibrium, and a feeling of losing mental control. Such attacks usually begin in a person's early twenties and can lead to a fear of being in crowds or closed places or of driving or flying.
These fears can drive avoidance of potentially problematic situations, which may spread until a person is virtually housebound
affects about 40 million American adults aged 18 and older every year. This occasional attack of overwhelming anxiety may have no obvious cause and usually resolves in an hour or less.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
is a diagnosis given to people whose worries about multiple issues linger more than six months. Followed by a depressive episode.
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
Obsessions are recurrent, unwanted thoughts or impulses. Compulsions are repetitive, difficult-to-resist urges to act in a certain way, usually associated with obsessions and against one's own wishes. A common compulsion is hand washing, associated with an obsessive fear of contamination by dirt.
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) -> 8 mill americans
reacting to severely traumatic events (events that produce a sense of terror and helplessness) such as physical violence to themselves or their loved ones. Symptoms include reexperiencing the trauma in dreams and in intrusive memories, trying to avoid anything associated with the trauma, and numbing of feelings. Hyperarousal (being on edge or easily startled), sleep disturbances, and other symptoms of anxiety and depression also commonly occur.
acute stress disorder
anxiety that is resolved in a month or less.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
main features of ADHD are inattention, hyperactivity, and/or impulsivity. To be diagnosed with ADHD, a person must have inattentive or hyperactive-impulsive symptoms of ADHD before age 12 (even if an adult at first diagnosis). There must also be evidence that the ADHD behaviors are present in two or more settings—for example, at home, school or work; with friends and family; and in other activities
An emotional disturbance that is intense and persistent enough to affect normal function; two common mood disorders are depression and bipolar disorder.
Depression -> most common disorder (6.7% of Americans and 20% have it in their lifetime)
A feeling of sadness and hopelessness or loss of pleasure in doing usual activities (anhedonia)
Poor appetite and weight loss or, alternatively, increased eating compared to usual
Insomnia or disturbed sleep, including sleeping more than normal
Restlessness or, alternatively, slowed thinking or activity
Thoughts of worthlessness and guiltPage 55
Trouble concentrating or making decisions
Thoughts of death or suicide
depression stats -> 51% of all suicides in the United States are committed with a firearm—more than 21,000 per year.
50% of college students report depression severe enough to hinder their daily functioning. Depression tends to be more severe and persistent in blacks than in people of other races. Despite this, only about 60% of blacks affected by depression receive treatment for it. only about 35% of people who suffer from depression currently seek treatment.
seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
A mood disorder characterized by seasonal depression, usually occurring in winter, when there is less daylight.
A mental illness characterized by alternating periods of depression and mania. Mania = A mood disorder characterized by excessive elation, irritability, talkativeness, inflated self-esteem, and expansiveness.
Schizophrenia (1 in 100).
a devastating mental disorder that affects a person's thinking and perceptions of reality. People with schizophrenia frequently develop paranoid ideas, false beliefs (delusions), or hallucinations that they believe to be real. The disease can be severe and debilitating or so mild that it's hardly noticeable.
The Biological Model
emphasizes that the mind's activity depends entirely on an organic structure, the brain, whose composition is genetically determined.
The Behavioral Model
focuses on what people do—their overt behavior—rather than on brain structures and chemistry or on thoughts and consciousness. This model regards psychological problems as "maladaptive behavior" or bad habits. When and how a person learned maladaptive behavior is less important than what makes it continue in the present.
Example of Behavioral model
Behaviorists analyze behavior in terms of stimulus, response, and reinforcement. The essence of behavior therapy is to discover what reinforcements keep an undesirable behavior going and then to try to alter those reinforcements. For example, if people who fear speaking in class (the stimulus) remove themselves from that situation (the response), they experience immediate relief, which acts as reinforcement for future avoidance and escape.
Increasing the future probability of a response by following it with a reward.
To change their behavior, fearful people are taught to practice
A therapeutic technique for treating fear; the subject learns to come into direct contact with a feared situation until fear goes away.
emphasizes the effect of ideas on behavior and feeling. According to this model, behavior results from complicated attitudes, expectations, and motives rather than from simple, immediate reinforcements. tries to expose and identify false ideas that produce feelings such as anxiety and depression.
Proponents of this model, however, do not believe thoughts can be changed directly because they are fed by other unconscious ideas and impulses.complex set of wishes and emotions hidden by active defenses.
Two-thirds of primary care physicians report that they have trouble getting psychiatric services for their patients due to a national shortage of psychiatrists.
This model combines many aspects of understanding the mind, recognizing that people are vulnerable to their own genetic history in an environment that includes relationships, culture, and personal idiosyncrasies.
cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBTs)
For example, the package for treating social anxiety emphasizes exposure as well as changing problematic patterns of thinking.
newer psychotherapies such as dialectical behavior therapy (DBT)
Principles of standard CBT by encouraging distress tolerance Page 61and acceptance of painful feelings and emotions through mindfulness (see Chapter 2), originally derived from Buddhist meditation and other Eastern practices. Mindfulness encourages a person to be aware of feelings rather than react to them, and to learn techniques to regulate emotions, by decreasing the intensity of emotional reactions.
being more assertive or less aggressive, depending on what's appropriate; communicating honestly; raising your self-esteem by avoiding negative thoughts, people, and actions that undermine it. Confront rather than avoid the things you fear
journal (self-help method)
Writing about painful experiences may provide an emotional release and can help you develop more constructive ways of dealing with similar situations in the future.
Peer counselingn and support groups
Just being able to share what's troubling you with an accepting, empathetic person can bring relief. Comparing notes with people who have problems similar to yours can give you new ideas about coping.
Online Help and Apps
The Department of Veterans Affairs has developed a series of free mobile apps to help with PTSD and insomnia, for example, among other problems. PTSD Coach and iCBT Coach are both available to the general public.
are medical doctors. They are experts in deciding whether a medical disease lies behind psychological symptoms, and they are usually involved in treatment if medication or hospitalization is required
typically hold a doctoral degree (PhD); they are often experts in behavioral and cognitive therapies.
The most important predictor of whether your therapy
will be helpful is how much rapport you feel with your therapist at the first session.
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