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52 terms

PSYC 2000 Lesson 7

STUDY
PLAY
retrieve sticks and balls
you would be most likely to use operant conditioning to teach a dog to
generalization
toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may also begin to fear speeding trucks and motorcycles. this best illustrates
chunking
the organization of information into meaningful units
observational learning
our ability to learn by witnessing and imitating the behavior of others
generalization
after learning to fear a white rat, little albert responded with fear to the sight of a rabbit. this best illustrates the process of
secondary
a stimulus that acquires reinforcing power by association with another reinforcer is called a ___ reinforcer
unconditioned response
shivering in cold weather is an example of
punisher
an aversive consequence that decreases the recurrence of the behavior that precedes it is a
misinformation effect
research on ____ indicates that events from the distant past are especially vulnerable to memory distortion
retrieval cues
words, events, places, and emotions that trigger our memory of the past
observable behavior
john b. watson believed that psychology should be the science of
meanings
semantic encoding refers to the processing of
learning
according to the text, ___ enables us to adapt to our environment
successive approximations
an animal trainer is teaching a miniature poodle to balance on a ball. Initially, he gives the poodle a treat for approaching the ball, then only for placing its front paws on the ball, and finally, only for climbing on the ball. The trainer is using the method of
discrimination
the ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and similar stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus is called
biological predispositions
children learn to fear spiders more easily than they learn to fear guns. This best illustrates the impact of ___ on learning
cognitive processes
the predictability rather than the frequency of CS-UCS associations appears to be crucial for classical conditioning. This highlights the importance of ___ in conditioning
new memories
epinephrine, a physically and emotionally arousing hormone, is likely to facilitate the formation of
spacing effect
kathy performs better on foreign language vocabulary tests if she studies the material fifteen minutes every day for eight days than if she crams for two hours the night before the test. this best illustrates what is known as the
extinction
kathleen developed an intense fear of flying five years ago when she was in a plane crash. the fact that today she can again fly without distress indicates that her fear has undergone
fixed-ratio
schedule of reinforcement in which a response is reinforced only after a specified number of responses have been made
misinformation effect
participants in an experiment were asked how fast two cars in a filmed traffic accident were going when they smashed into each other. many of these participants subsequently recalled seeing broken glass at the scene of the accident. this experiment best illustrated the
short-term
after finding his friends phone number, alex was able to remember it only long enough to dial it correctly. in this case, the telephone number was clearly stored in his ___ memory
mood-congruent memory
the more depressed betty feels, the more easily she remembers many of the sad events in her life. this best illustrates
reinforcer
an event that increases the frequency of the behavior that it follows
encoding
the process of getting information into memory
overjustification effect
experiments have shown that children who are promised a payoff for playing with an interesting toy subsequently lost interest in the toy. these experiments provide an example of
rosy retrospection
elaine recalls last year's paris vacation more positively than she evaluated it when it occurred. this best illustrates
rapid; slows down
ebbinghaus discovered that the rate at which we forget novel information is initially ___ and subsequently ___
proactive interference
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
memory aid
a mnemonic device is a
biological predispositions
garcia and koelling's studies of taste aversion in rats demonstrated that classical conditioning is constrained by
echoic
the hippocampus plays a critical role in ___ memory
secondary reinforcement; primary reinforcement
response-stimulus associations are to ___ as stimulus-stimulus associations are to ___
partial
resistance to extinction is most strongly encouraged by ___ reinforcement
implicit
a retention of skills and dispositions without conscious recollection is known as ___ memory
cerebellum
studies of the conditioned eye-blink response in rabbits suggest that implicit memories are stored in the
short-term
"the magical number seven, plus or minus two" refers to the storage capacity of ___ memory
recognition
memory measure of a person's identification of items previously learned
explicit
___ memory is AKA declarative memory
shaping
an operant conditioning procedure closer and closer approximations of a desired goal
reinforcer
in operant conditioning, any even that strengthens the behavior it follows
chunking
organizing items in manageable units
behaviorism
studies behavior without reference to mental processes
priming
activation of particular (often unconscious) associations in memory
UCR
unconditioned response
operant
behavior operates on the environment, producing consequences
conditioned
___ stimulus is an originally neutral stimulus that, after association with a UCS, comes to trigger a conditioned response
conditioned
___ response is a learned response to a previously neutral CS
implicit
___ memory is retention without conscious recollection
retrieval
getting information out of memory storage
encoding
processing of information into memory