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What is Autsism?

Autism is a severe developmental disability with symptoms that emerge before a child's 3rd birthday.

What three conditions need to be in order to Diagnose autism?

1) Impaired social interactions with other people.

2) Moderate to severe impairment of communication skills.

3) Restrictive, repetitive, and stereotypical behaviors and interests

What is Echolalia?

Echolalia refers to stereotypical repetitions of specific words or phrases.
*Such as when a 4-year old repeatedly says, 'Ticket, please. Thank you."

What is Childhood Disintegrative Disorder?

Childhood Disintegrative Disorder describes children younger than 10 years who appear to
be developing normally until at least their 2nd birthday but then display a significant loss or regression of skills in 2 or more of the following areas:
* Language
* Social skills
* Bowel and bladder control
* Play, or motor skills

What are children with Asperger's syndrome often referred to?

Higher-Functioning" children with autism.

What do Children and adolescents with
Asperger's syndrome often have substantial problems wit?

* Social Interaction
* Show restricted and idiosyncratic behavioral patterns & interests

What is Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (POD-NOS)?

This describes severe problems with social interactions & communication, repetitive behaviors & overly restricted interests but does not otherwise meet the specific diagnostic
criteria for autism, childhood disintegrative disorder, or Asperger's syndrome.

What is Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)?

An umbrella term which is a neurobiological disorder that result from an organic brain abnormality

What are the four conditions of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)?

1) Autism,
2) Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
3) Asperger's Syndrome
4) Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (POD-NOS).

There is a higher risk among boys and among children with affected family members for ASD


What are ASDs believed to result from?

An organic brain abnormality

Seizure disorder is seen in 25% of children with autism

(suggests a commonality in the brain structures affected by ASD) 7 seizures.

Parental age is NOT associated with a risk for autism ASD.

(children born to two older parents how an elevated risk for autism)

What was another name for Intellectual Disability (ID)

Mental Retardation

What is Intellectual Disability (ID)?

(ID) is a "condition of arrested or incomplete development of the mind, which is especially characterized by impairment of skills manifested during the developmental period.

ID is diagnosed in children younger than age 18 years who meet which TWO criteria?

1) Significant limitations in intellectual functioning
2) Significant limitations in adaptive behavior

Children with ID exhibit limitations in intelligence such as:

1) Difficulty reasoning
2) Planning
3) Solving problems
4) Thinking in abstract terms
5) Comprehending abstract & complex concepts
6) Learning skills.

ID ranges from mild to profound

(mild cases are more common),

Generally, children with ID show delays in early communicative behaviors (e.g., pointing to request, commenting vocally) & are slow to use their first words and to produce multiword combinations.

(language skills of a person with ID usually parallel the degree of intellectual impairment)

Name the Categories and prevalence of ID?

1) Mild
2) Moderate
3) Severe
4) Profound

Decribe Mild ID

Has mild learning difficulties but can work, maintain good social relationships.
They have only minor difficulties with Abstract Concepts, Figurative Language, Complex Syntax & Conversational Communication.

Decribe Moderate ID

Has obvious developmental delays in childhood but can develop some degree of independence in self-care & acquire adequate communication & academic skills

Decribe Severe ID

Exhibits early and ongoing significant developmental delays; acquires few or no speech or language skills in preschool years but may later develop minimal communication skills.

Describe Profound ID

Exhibits significant limitations in all aspects of daily living (e.g., self-care, continence); communication is severely affected.
(the individual may produce no words and understand little)

About 30% of ID is associated with prenatal damage to the developing fetus due to chromosomal abnormalities or maternal ingestion of toxins.


What are some cause & risk factors of ASD?

1) Prenatal & Perinatal Complications:
(Maternal Reubella & Anoxia---Lack of oxgen to the brain)

2) Developmental or Physical Disabilities:
Encephalitis (inflammtion of the brain)

Most children with ID exhibit at least 1 Mild Impairment of language.


The cause of 30-40% of ID CANNOT be identified


What percentage of ID does Environemental Influences & other mental conditions such as sensory deprivation and the presennce of autism.account for


What percentage of ID does Pregnancy & Prenatal Problems, such as Fetal Malnutrition, Prematurity, Anoxia & Viral Infection account for


What percentage of ID does Medical Conditions such as Trauma, Infection, Poisoning etc. account for


What is Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)?

Damage or insult to an individual's brain tissue
sometime after birth

Young children, adolescent males, and older persons have the highest risk, males are affected twice as often as females


Severe injury is accompanied by a coma lasting for...

6 hr or more

Severe TBI can result from....

1) Infection
2) Disease
3) Physical Trauma

Common causes of TBI in children result from...

1) Abuse (e.g., Shaken Baby Syndrome)
2) Intentional Harm (e.g., being hit on the head)
3) Accidental Poisoning through ingestion of toxic substances (e.g., prescription medications, pesticides),
4) Car accidents
5) Falls.

What is the most common form of TBI?

Closed-Head Injury (CHI)

What is Closed-Head Injury

CHI is a head injury, in which brain matter is not exposed or penetrated. (e.g. car accidents & shaken baby syndrome)

Describe an Open-Headed Injury?

The brain matter is exposed through penetration, as would occur with a gunshot wound

What often accompanies both CHI & OHI?

Whether diffuse or focal- these injuries are often accompanied by secondary brain injuries that result from the primary trauma.

What part of the barin usually affected by TBI?

Injury to the brain typically damages the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain, which house the centers for many of the executive (e.g., reasoning, planning, hypothesizing) and language functions

What are language disorders resulting from brain injury influenced by?

1) Severity of the injury
2) Site of damage
3) Characteristics of the child before the injury occurred

What aspect of language is most commonly impaired by TBI?

Use or Pragmatics

What are the percentages statistics of the most common causes of TBI?

1) Falls = 28%
2) Car Accidents = 20%
3) Sports = 19%
4) Assaults = 11%

Risk Factors of TBI include

1) Participation in contact sports or activities which may cause collisions or falls

2) Using drugs or alcohol during these

What is Hearing Loss?

Hearing Loss is a physical condition in which an individual cannot detect or distinguish
the full range of sounds normally available to the human ear.

What can result in Hearling Loss?

1) Prenatal Damage
2) Perinatal Damage
3) Postnatal Damage

*To any of the structures that carry auditory information from the external world to the brain centers that process auditory

What is Conductive Loss?

Hearing loss resulting from damage to the
outer or middle ear

What is Sensorineural loss?

Hearing loss resulting from damage to the inner ear or auditory nerve

Conductive and Sensorineural loss may occur bilaterally

Bilaterally - (both ears are affected) or Unilaterally (one ear is affected and the other is intact).

What is Auditory-Processing Disorder (APD).

Hearing loss that results from damage to the centers of the brain that process auditory information

What is Congenital Hearing Loss

Hearing loss present at birth

What percentage of cases for Congenital Hearing Loss occur for unknown reasons


What are the more popular causes for Congenital Hearing Loss

1) Genetic Transmission (Le., one or both of the child's parents carry a gene for hearing loss)

2) In utero infections (e.g., herpes, rubella)

3) Prematurity

4) Pregnancy Complications

5) Trauma during the birth process

What is Acquired Hearing Loss

Hearing loss that occurs after birth.

What are the prominent causes of Acquired Hearing Loss?

1) Noise Exposure,
2) Infection
3) Use of ototoxic medications
4) Chronic middle-ear infections

What is Prelingual Hearing Loss?

Hearing loss acquired after birth but before the child has developed language

What is Postlingual Hearing Loss?

Hearing loss acquired sometime after the child has developed language

How does the severity for Postlingual Hearing Loss run?

Mild to Profound

How do you Identify severity of loss?

By using the decibel scale (dB),

What is the decibel scale (dB)?

It is the standard unit of sound intensity, or loudness

What is the Range of human hearing?

0dB to 140dB
(0dB is the threshold of sound)

What does the dB scale do?

Identify the threshold at which an
individual with hearing loss is able to hear sound

What are the thresholds at which an
individual with hearing loss is able to hear sound?

1. 16 to 25dB: minimal loss
2. 26 to 40dB: mild loss
3. 41 to55dB: moderate loss
4. 56 to 70dB: moderately severe loss
5. 71 to 90 dB: severe loss
6. 91dB or higher: profound loss

What are the factors which decide what extent hearing loss impacts a child's development of language?

1. Timing of the loss
2. Severity of the loss
3. Age of identification*
4. Exposure to language input*

*strongly related to whether the child with hearing loss proceeds
along a path of typical or atypical language acquisition

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