Autism is a severe developmental disability with symptoms that emerge before a child's 3rd birthday.
What three conditions need to be in order to Diagnose autism?
1) Impaired social interactions with other people.
2) Moderate to severe impairment of communication skills.
3) Restrictive, repetitive, and stereotypical behaviors and interests
What is Echolalia?
Echolalia refers to stereotypical repetitions of specific words or phrases. *Such as when a 4-year old repeatedly says, 'Ticket, please. Thank you."
What is Childhood Disintegrative Disorder?
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder describes children younger than 10 years who appear to be developing normally until at least their 2nd birthday but then display a significant loss or regression of skills in 2 or more of the following areas: * Language * Social skills * Bowel and bladder control * Play, or motor skills
What are children with Asperger's syndrome often referred to?
Higher-Functioning" children with autism.
What do Children and adolescents with Asperger's syndrome often have substantial problems wit?
* Social Interaction * Show restricted and idiosyncratic behavioral patterns & interests
What is Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (POD-NOS)?
This describes severe problems with social interactions & communication, repetitive behaviors & overly restricted interests but does not otherwise meet the specific diagnostic criteria for autism, childhood disintegrative disorder, or Asperger's syndrome.
What is Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)?
An umbrella term which is a neurobiological disorder that result from an organic brain abnormality
What are the four conditions of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)?
Generally, children with ID show delays in early communicative behaviors (e.g., pointing to request, commenting vocally) & are slow to use their first words and to produce multiword combinations.
TRUE (language skills of a person with ID usually parallel the degree of intellectual impairment)
Name the Categories and prevalence of ID?
1) Mild 2) Moderate 3) Severe 4) Profound
Decribe Mild ID
Has mild learning difficulties but can work, maintain good social relationships. They have only minor difficulties with Abstract Concepts, Figurative Language, Complex Syntax & Conversational Communication.
Decribe Moderate ID
Has obvious developmental delays in childhood but can develop some degree of independence in self-care & acquire adequate communication & academic skills
Decribe Severe ID
Exhibits early and ongoing significant developmental delays; acquires few or no speech or language skills in preschool years but may later develop minimal communication skills.
Describe Profound ID
Exhibits significant limitations in all aspects of daily living (e.g., self-care, continence); communication is severely affected. (the individual may produce no words and understand little)
About 30% of ID is associated with prenatal damage to the developing fetus due to chromosomal abnormalities or maternal ingestion of toxins.
What are some cause & risk factors of ASD?
1) Prenatal & Perinatal Complications: (Maternal Reubella & Anoxia---Lack of oxgen to the brain)
2) Developmental or Physical Disabilities: Encephalitis (inflammtion of the brain)
Most children with ID exhibit at least 1 Mild Impairment of language.
The cause of 30-40% of ID CANNOT be identified
What percentage of ID does Environemental Influences & other mental conditions such as sensory deprivation and the presennce of autism.account for
What percentage of ID does Pregnancy & Prenatal Problems, such as Fetal Malnutrition, Prematurity, Anoxia & Viral Infection account for
What percentage of ID does Medical Conditions such as Trauma, Infection, Poisoning etc. account for
What is Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)?
Damage or insult to an individual's brain tissue sometime after birth
Young children, adolescent males, and older persons have the highest risk, males are affected twice as often as females
Severe injury is accompanied by a coma lasting for...
6 hr or more
Severe TBI can result from....
1) Infection 2) Disease 3) Physical Trauma
Common causes of TBI in children result from...
1) Abuse (e.g., Shaken Baby Syndrome) 2) Intentional Harm (e.g., being hit on the head) 3) Accidental Poisoning through ingestion of toxic substances (e.g., prescription medications, pesticides), 4) Car accidents 5) Falls.
What is the most common form of TBI?
Closed-Head Injury (CHI)
What is Closed-Head Injury
CHI is a head injury, in which brain matter is not exposed or penetrated. (e.g. car accidents & shaken baby syndrome)
Describe an Open-Headed Injury?
The brain matter is exposed through penetration, as would occur with a gunshot wound
What often accompanies both CHI & OHI?
Whether diffuse or focal- these injuries are often accompanied by secondary brain injuries that result from the primary trauma.
What part of the barin usually affected by TBI?
Injury to the brain typically damages the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain, which house the centers for many of the executive (e.g., reasoning, planning, hypothesizing) and language functions
What are language disorders resulting from brain injury influenced by?
1) Severity of the injury 2) Site of damage 3) Characteristics of the child before the injury occurred
What aspect of language is most commonly impaired by TBI?
Use or Pragmatics
What are the percentages statistics of the most common causes of TBI?