13 terms

PAX Human Anatomy & Physiology: Respiration

terms to be defined; respiration
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nasal cavites
air enters into the respiratory system through here, which lead to the pharynx
larynx
voice box
bronchi
two branches that branch off of the windpipe leading to the lungs
bronchioles
thinner and thinner branching of tubes inside each lung
alveolus
plural: alveoli; thin and permeable air sacs found at the end of the bronchioles; functional units of the lung
breathing
the process by which air is moved into and out of the lungs; this involves the muscular movement of the diaphragm, and of the rib cage, which raises and lowers the pressure in the chest cavity; lowering pressure in the chest forces outside air into the lungs, and increasing pressure forces exhaled air out of the lungs
exhaled air
has a higher concentration of carbon dioxide (CO₂) and water than inhaled air
rate of breathing
controlled by the nervous system, in response to CO₂ levels in the blood
cellular respiration
the process by which we get energy from the food that we eat; can be aerobic or anaerobic
aerobic respiration
occurs when oxygen is present, and it is the opposite process to that of photosynthesis; during photosynthesis, a plant uses energy to convert water and carbon dioxide to glucose; in this type of respiration, we use glucose, at a cellular level, to obtain energy; a very efficient process, begins in the cytoplasm of the cell and ends in the mitochondria, where the energy from glucose is stored in the form of ATP
anaerobic respiration
occurs if oxygen is not present; less efficient, and produces a lower amount of ATP
lactic acid
produced during anaerobic respiration; a cause of sore muscles after strenuous exercise
fermentation
anaerobic respiration in yeast; produces ethanol rather than lactic acid