Terms in this set (86)
the extent to which the environment permits continuous growth
relating to or derived by reasoning from self-evident propositions (deductive)
refers to the rate and type of change of organizational environments
heterogeneity and range of an organization's activities (organic vs. mechanic structures)
Munificence, dynamism, complexity
Dimensions of task environments
Two resource priorities
extent to which a local firm depends on outside parties for the provision of critical inputs into its core transformation process
representative of management team of critical resource provider takes up a board seat in the focal company; to gain a more stable supply relationship
image of appropriateness or social approval, against the background of societal norms
a group of theories explaining the growth (through organizational founding), decline (through organizational deaths), and composition (through selective founding or death of specific organizational forms) of organizational populations.
the group of all firms of a given form occupying an ecological niche (usually a geographical market).
Resource partitioning theory
Aim: to explain the composition of populations of organizations
Density dependency theory
To explain the growth and decline of populations of organizations
is a process. It is something that happens to an organization over time, reflecting the organization's own distinctive history, the people who have been in it, the groups it embodies and the vested interests they have created, and the way it has adapted to its environment (...) In what is perhaps its most significant meaning, 'to institutionalize' is to infuse with value beyond the technical requirements of the task at hand.
the loosening of the connections between the symbolic façade of organizations and their back-stage work processes.
becoming more homogeneous (in terms of organizational populations) = Isomorphism
Coerceive, Normative, Mimetic
Provided a ground-breaking insight of 'organization' (Organization as a substitute for politics)
Intended (Emergent vs ___)
First order change
becoming better at playing the game (Fine-tuning and Adaptation)
Second order change
changing the rules of the game (Reorientation, re-creation)
(1. Typology - ) Woodward: Technology as a contingency
Unit/small batch, large batch, continous process
(2. Typology - )Thompson: Technology in open systems
Long-linked technology (eg. Heineken) - TYPOLOGY
(3. Typology -) Perrow: Technology as work tasks
Task variability, Task analyzability (routine, craft, engineering, non-routine)
is a system wide application of behavioural science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies, structures, and processes for improving an organization's effectiveness
OD as planned change
(a) A change intervention that alters
(b) key organizational target variables that then impact
(c) individual organizational members and their on-the-job behaviors resulting in changes in
(d) organizational outcomes
Lewin's three-step model
Unfreeze, Move, Refreeze
refers to a set of sequenced planned actions or events intended to help an organization increase its effectiveness. Interventions purposely disrupt the status quo; they are a deliberate attempt to change an organization or subunit toward a different and more effective state
Kinds of interventions
A) Human process
C) Human resource
(Kinds of ______)
'What people define as real, is real in its consequences.'
EPIC logic ( of succesful change)
Explore, Plan, Initiate, Control
Visions for change
- Aspiration: Why? engaging desire
- Inspiration: What? providing direction
- Perspiration: How? enabling action
(_____ for ______)
Constitutive moments of radical change
Voulantarism, Egalitarian justice, Terror, Trust in people
Process: Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, Acceptance (model)
existence of relatively 'strong' subcultures (e.g. departments or business units)
supporting the dominant corporate culture
separate but not adverse to dominant culture
Models of learning in organizations
Knowledge management, organizational learning, learning organization
(Models of ____________)
the activities organizations engage in to foster the sustained employment of and to maximize the returns on their intellectual assets within their environment.
....consists of Learning curve
(Tacit) knowledge in
an organization which learns and/or an organization which encourages learning in its people. It should mean both." (Charles Handy)
Socialization, externalization, internalization, combination (tacit knowledge, explicit knowledge)
Willingness, Opportunity, Ability
Knowledge transfer depends on...
Psychological, Relational, Structural
3 Conditions for knowledge management
The inability to bridge knowledge gaps (restraining condition)
the ability to take in new knowledge (enabling condition)
Intended Change Outcomes
Change Manager as Director
• change is a strategic choice that managers make, on which the survival and well-being of the organization depends.
• manager directs the organization in particular ways in order to produce the required change
Change Manager as Navigator
• control is still the focus of management actions, which leads to intended outcomes
• but managers also recognize there are external factors, which will lead to some unintended outcomes
• thus change is partially controllable
Change Manager as Caretaker
• the ideal image of management is still one of control, although the ability to exercise control is severely constrained by a variety of forces, both internally and externally driven, that propel change relatively independent of a manager's intentions
• rather pessimistic image, at best managers are _____
Life Cycle Theory
the organization passes through the stages birth, growth, maturity, decline and death. There is little change managers can do to stop this natural development
Population ecology theory
focus on how the environment selects organizations for survival or extinction, through: organizational variation (random), organizational selection (environment selects organizations with best fit to its conditions), and organizational retention (forces that retain various organizational forms and thereby serve as a counter-influence to the forces of variation and selection)
change managers take actions across whole populations of organizations: mimetic, coercive, and normative actions (THEORY)
Change Manager as Coach
• change managers are able to intentionally shape the organization's capabilities in particular ways
• like a sports ____: shapes the team's capabilities to ensure that, in a competitive situation, it will be able to succeed.
Change Manager as Interpreter
• places the change manager in the position of creating meaning for other organizational members, helping them to make sense of various organizational events and actions.
• create imaginary lines between events, objects and situations so that events, objects and situations become meaningful for the members of an organizational world
Change Manager as Nurturer
• assumption: even small changes may have a large impact on organizations and managers are not able to control the outcome of these changes
• future outcomes are natured or shaped
• but ability to produce intended outcomes is limited because of the impact of much wider, sometimes chaotic forces and influences
assumes organizational change is nonlinear, is fundamental rather than incremental, and does not necessarily entail growth
view change as cyclical (constant ebb and flow), processional (harmonious movement from one state to another), journey oriented (cyclical change, therefore no end state), based on maintaining equilibrium (achieving natural harmony), observed and followed by involved people ( who constantly seek harmony with their universe), and normal rather than the exception.
organizations imitate the structures and practices of other organizations in their field/industry, usually ones that they consider as legitimate or successful
Formal coercive pressures
Government mandates such as new laws and policies
Informal coercive pressures
commitment to certain types of organizational changes such as empowerment in order to get the support of other organizations also committed to such programs.
Organizational learning theorists
___________ assume, environmental pressures such as market decline will lead to innovative organizational adaption and change as managers learn from the problems and try to close the gap between performance and aspirations
_______ assume, environmental pressures will inhibit innovative change as managers' cognitive and decision-making processes become restricted when confronted with threatening problems
________ assume, the environment does not have an objective existence outside of individual views and perceptions of it. In this sense, managers are trapped by their own cognitive sense-making frames.
to keep the organization effective by adapting parts of it to changes happening in the outside environment
to keep the organization efficient by avoiding change through shielding parts of it from the effects of the environment
Type 1 transformation
from an entrepreneurial to a professional management structure
Type 2 transformation
revitalization of already-established companies
Type 3 transformation
visionary change in which the organization fundamentally changes the business in which it is involved
View that some environmental conditions may be temporary, or undergoing continuous change, and therefore require robust responses including the enactment of new, perhaps unanticipated capabilities.
centralizing/specializing a firm's operations → removal of unnecessary jobs. Helps competitive advantage, may increase economies of scale
permanent change in employment and tangible resource capacity. Reduces economies of scale and competitive market share
divests (= splitsen) activities or markets in which it operates by reducing the vertical and/or horizontal differentiation
process of influencing or leading through the purposeful control of one's thoughts. It is based on the following propositions
ability to mix major change initiatives, the ones most likely to be destabilizing and disruptive, with tinkering and kludging
'helps to structure activities to help the organization members solve their own problems and learn to do it better'. Employee identifies a problem, ________ gathers information about the problem and data, introduces new techniques/behaviours which will be implemented and lastly further date of the outcome of the change is collected.
Assumption of inertia
(_____ of _____) is that planned, intended change is necessary in order to disrupt the forces that contribute to a lack of change in an organization so that there is a lag between environmental change and organizational adaption → wrong because it focuses on the structure rather than a focus on the structuring flows and processes through which organizational work occurs
Change management approaches
• provide multi-step models of how to achieve large-scale, transformational change
• most models stress that not all keys plays as much a role in each change, as each change in situational contingent.
• Change management increasingly gained a lot of attention over the past years
getting information from them that will be useful in achieving the change, identifying what is important to them, and uncovering what they see as the costs and benefits of the change
Underscore and explore
management engages employees in dialogue about change process, seeks to identify obstacles and misunderstanding that will need to be addressed
Tell and sell
management tries to both inform staff about the change (only core organizational issues) and sell it to them. potential threat: employee skepticism and cynicism
Identify and reply
defensive strategy: identify and respond to employee rumours. assumes staff knows organizational issues, which they usually do not
Spray and pray
information overload, managers do this in the hope staff will pick up on what is needed to be done
Withhold and Uphold
information is withheld until it's absolutely necessary to release it
the extent to which the communication style entails personal contact.
a person who uses his skills to helping others deal with the organizational pain that can be associated with change (e.g. unrealistic expectations or targets, internal competition). They act as sponges, soaking up the ill-effects of change processes and acting as intermediaries between staff and toxic organizational policies and bosses.
Dominant language forms
1. Ideals - which express preferences
2. Appeals - which seek support
3. Rules - which seek to direct the behaviour of individuals
4. Deals - which serve as a form of bargaining and exchange
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