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GEOG 1003 Exam #4
Terms in this set (117)
How many people in total live in sub-Saharan Africa?
What is the average GNI PPP per capita in sub-Saharan Africa?
Most of sub-Saharan Africa experiences what kind of climate?
ITCZ (intertropical convergence zone)
a region where air flows together and rises vertically as a result of intense solar heating at the Equator, often with heavy rainfall, and shifting north and south with the seasons
a zone of descending air, which results in dry, stable desert conditions over the Sahara and Kalahari Deserts
Areas between the ITCZ and the subtropical high such as the West African coast and East Africa experience what?
Global circulations in areas b/t the ITCZ and the subtropical shift _______ in April and _______ in October.
What country in the region has, in part, a Mediterranean climate?
an area at the southern border of the Sahara Desert in Africa with highly variable rainfall and a population dependent on pastoralism and a history of famine
a system of farming and way of life depending on the environment and based on keeping herd of grazing animals (e.g., cattle, sheep, goats, horses, camels, yaks)
About how many cattle died in Sahel b/t 1968 and 1973 as a result of the drought?
About how many farmers lost more than half their harvests in Sahel as a result of the drought?
cattle died, farmers lost harvest, people died from famine
List 3 occurrences as a result of the rain fails and drought in Sahel b/t 1968 and 1973.
Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan
Which 3 countries were affected by famine in the 1980s and 1990s?
What is the prediction of the future climate of almost all of Africa?
more intense droughts
What is predicted of southern Africa's climate change?
What is the tallest mountain in sub-Saharan Africa?
Congo & Zambia
Which two countries in sub-Saharan Africa have massive copper deposits?
Which country in northern sub-Saharan Africa is a large producer of Uranium?
What is the name of the waterfall that is locate down the Zambia/Zimbabwe border?
What is the name of the river that is located on the Zambia/Zimbabwe border?
grassland vegetation found in tropical areas with a pronounced dry season and periodic fires
Savanna grassland areas cover about _______ of Africa.
the action of moving herds according to seasonal rhythms: in Africa from wetter to drier areas
Fulani of West Africa
What pastoralist group practices transhumance?
What is the percentage of land in sub-Saharan Africa that enjoys some sort of protected status?
What is the modern day country in which the oldest evidence of human species was discovered?
Spain, Portugal, China
What three countries played an important role in the advent of the colonial period in Africa?
gold, ivory, slaves
What are three things that were provided by Africans in trade during the colonial period?
Dahomey & Benin
What two African coastal kingdoms captured enemies or residents of inland villages and sold them to slave traders?
What is the total estimate of how many slaves were shipped to the Americas b/t 1600 and 1870?
What is the estimated amount of slaves who died during the journey to the Americas b/t 1600 and 1870?
were early Dutch European settlers in South Africa and the ancestors of people who now identify as Afrikaans; Dutch word for farmers
What is the name of the first white settlers in sub-Saharan Africa?
What part of Africa did the Boers first settled?
British, French, Belgian King Leopold, Portuguese, Germans
Name the 5 major European colonial powers at this time.
a meeting convened in 1884-1885 by German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck to divide Africa among European colonial powers
How many countries were represented at the Berlin Conference?
What country was not represented at the Berlin Conference?
East African highlands & Southern Africa
Name the two areas where export orientated economies of colonial Africa dominated.
Vast rubber plantations were owned by Firestone Corporation in _______.
This product was owned by the Firestone Corporation in Liberia.
Ghana & Cote d'Ivoire
Cocoa dominated the cropland of which two African countries?
This product was the dominated cropland of Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire.
Cotton was the dominant crop in what African country?
This product was dominant in Sudan.
French West Africa
Peanuts were dominant in what African country?
French West Africa dominated what crop?
Tea and coffee were dominant in what African country?
tea & coffee
These two products were dominant in East Africa.
facilitated trade beyond but not within Africa
How did export orientated economies of colonial Africa affect trans-Africa trade?
taxation & intimidation
What two means did European colonists use to persuade African peasant farmers to produce goods for export?
paternalistic indirect rule
What was the British form of colonial governance in Africa?
What was the French form of colonial governance in Africa?
80 years (1880-1960)
What was the duration of the formal colonial period in Africa?
Soviet Union & Cuba
What were the two countries that sponsored liberation movements in the Portuguese colonies of Angola and Mozambique
terms of trade
the relationship between the prices a country pays for imports compared to the price it receives for its exports; this is considered poor when import prices are much higher than export prices
Because of deteriorating terms of trade, small farmers had to produce _______ as much coffee in 1990 as in 1960 to earn the money needed to purchase a bag of fertilizers.
increasing food prices & unemployment
What were two major impacts of the debt in Africa?
$32 billion ($148 billion in 2001 to $116 billion in 2011)
How much debt in Africa was relieved in the 2000s?
What percentage of people in sub-Saharan Africa work in agriculture?
Which sub-Saharan African country provides half of all roses to the European Union?
large-scale land purchases made by foreign investors in developing countries
may undermine African food security
What is the major negative impact of land grabs in sub-Saharan Africa?
economic activities that take place beyond the official record and not subject to formalized systems of regulation or remuneration (e.g., street selling and petty crime)
Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Zambia
What three sub-Saharan African countries have an economy in which half of their GNI and more than 3/4 of the jobs are associated with informal economy?
In Zimbabwe, Tanzania and Zambia, more than _______ of the jobs are associated with informal economy.
money sent home to family or friends by people working temporarily or permanently in other countries
In 2010, more than _______ in remittances were sent back from Africans working overseas.
oil, timber, cobalt, manganese, copper, iron ore
List the six major commodities that China imports from Africa
What is the average life expectancy in sub-Saharan Africa?
14 years under (global = 69)
How does sub-Saharan Africa's life expectancy compare with the global life expectancy?
In 2008, what percentage of people in sub-Saharan Africa lived on less than $1 a day?
In 2008, what percentage of people in sub-Saharan Africa lived on less than $2 a day?
based in Ababa, Ethiopia, an organization that promotes solidarity among African states, the elimination of colonialism and cooperative development efforts
boundary disputes; Ethiopia; Somalia
The African Union was successful in mediating _______ between _______ and _______ in the 1960s.
The African Union was successful in pressing for the end of the _______ in South Africa?
South Africa's policy of racial separation that, prior to 1994, structured space and society to separate black, white and colored populations
policies of strict racial segregation b/t blacks and Afrikaners established by the Boers in South Africa during the 18th and 19th centuries and continuing under apartheid in the 20th century, which included the establishment of native reserves and the mandate that blacks needed permission to enter of live in white areas
segregated areas set aside in South Africa for black residents under apartheid from 1959 where they were given limited self-government but no vote and limited rights in the general politics of South Africa
the anti-apartheid movement leader who was jailed and elected as the first black president of South Africa in 1994 after 40 years of apartheid
leader of the African National Congress (ANC)
Hutu & Tutsi
Who were the two groups of combatants in the Rwanda conflict?
Which group won control of Rwanda and Burundi?
How many people died in the Sierra Leone civil war?
How many people died in the Liberian civil war?
rape & child soldiers
What were the two notorious atrocities that the Sierra Leone and Liberia civil wars were known for?
What is an example of a lingua franca in Sahel or West Africa?
What is an example of a lingua franca in East Africa?
What country has the world's third largest film industry following the U.S. and India?
the nickname for Nigeria's film industry
What is the literacy rate for women in sub-Saharan Africa? For men?
poor, malnourished, less education, lower pay rates
List four ways in which women are disadvantaged in sub-Saharan Africa.
ability to work as herders, help with household work, care for younger siblings
List three reasons why fertility remains high in sub-Saharan Africa due to children being valued.
What is the fertility rate of women in Ghana with secondary or higher education?
What is the fertility rate of women in Ghana with little or no schooling?
Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland, South Africa
List the four countries which have been impacted most by HIV/AIDS.
What percentage of the population in Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland were infected with HIV/AIDS?
What percentage of the population in South Africa was infected with HIV/AIDS?
More than _______ Africans have lost their lives to AIDS since the disease was identified in 1981.
domestic policies, foreign assistance, subsidized treatment
List three recent successes in combating HIV/AIDS in Africa.
17 million (20% of overall regional population)
What was the urban population of sub-Saharan Africa in 1960?
319 million (37% of total population)
What was the urban population of sub-Saharan Africa in 2010?
Brazil, the Caribbean, U.S.
What are the three main locations globally where the African diaspora reside?
Britain, France, Canada, England
List 4 other countries included in the second wave of African emigration.
Europe, North America, Australia
List three continents where recent emigrations from Africa have resided.
people who choose to flee due to armed conflict, human rights violations and drought in sub-Saharan Africa; most are housed in camps that are supported by international organizations & charities
internally displaced people
people forced to move within their own countries who do not fall qualify for assistance or have access to relief organizations
a 1917 British mandate that required the establishment of a Jewish national homeland
this supported the legal migration of Jews to Palestine
Jews, Muslims, Christians
What religions were Jerusalem sacred to?
an uprising of Palestinians in the 1980s against the rule of Israel in the Occupied Territories
a political and military organization based in Lebanon, in which some members are part of militias with a main goal of destroying the state of Israel
What is the estimated amount of Iraqi deaths since conflict began in 2003?
founding of the state of Israel, Russian Jews at the end of Cold War, Ethiopian Jews because of civil war, oil economy
List four pull factors that drew people to work in the Middle East.
Israel (92% of population living in cities)
What is the most urbanized country in MENA?
Sudan (only 33% of population living in cities)
What is the most rural country in MENA?
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