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34 terms

Chapter 9: The Political Process & Chapter 12: Understanding Elections

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STUDY
PLAY
Media
Organizations that provide news and information to the public
Propaganda
Information which is false or which emphasizes just one part of a situation, used by a government or political group to make people agree with them
Bias
An opinion about whether a person, group, or idea is good or bad which influences how you deal with it; to unfairly influence attitudes, choices, or decisions
Liberal
One who favors governmental involvement in the economy, the provision of social services, and who takes an activist role in protecting the rights of individuals
Conservative
One who believes that a government is best that governs least and that big government can only infringe on individual rights
Endorse
To express formal support or approval for someone or something
Lobby
To try to persuade the government or someone with political power that a law or situation should be changed
Platform
The main ideas and aims of a political party, especially, the ones that they state just before an election
Ideology
An organized set of beliefs that strongly influence the way an individual or society behaves
Demographics
Information about a group such as the people who live in a particular area
Public Opinion
Sum of views shared by a segment of society
Political Socialization
Process by which people acquire political beliefs (from family and peers)
Exit Poll
Randomly select fraction of voters after they have voted (before official count); helps predict who winners will be
First Political Parties
Federalists & Democratic-Republicans
Third Party
Any political party in a two-party system besides the two major ones
Independent Candidate
Candidate who is not associated with any party
Political Party
An organization that tries to elect its members to public office so that its views can become pubic policy
One-party System
The party is the government; other parties may or may not be allowed to operate, but they usually have no power
Two-party System
Two major parties compete to control government; other parties may exist and affect elections, but rarely have enough support to elect a national leader or control the legislature (example: US)
Multiparty System
Several parties compete for control
Primary Elections
Held if there is more than one member of same political party that is seeking office
Closed Primary
Only voters registered as party members can vote
Open Primary
Any registered voter may vote in either party's primary
Presidential Primary Season
Usually runs from January to June during year of presidential election
Hard Money
Money donated to an individual campaign; regulated by state and federal laws
Soft Money
Money given to party rather than specific candidate (can give as much as you want)
Voting Requirements
Must be US citizen, at least 18 years old, and resident of state in which you'd like to vote in
Federal Elections
Held the first Tuesday following the first Monday in November
Absentee Ballot
May be cast when voters are not able to be at polling place on election day; early voting rules vary by state
Negative Campaigning
Attacks on opposing candidate's weaknesses
Individual Donations
Largest source of funds; individuals contribute directly or by hosting fundraisers
Contributions by PACs
Second most important source of funds
Political Party Contributions
Limited amounts funded by committees within a political party
Public Funding
Comes from federal government through income tax; only available to presidential candidates