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A & P EXAM 1
Terms in this set (96)
structure is indicative of ___________
(1) epithelial (2) nervous (3) connective (4) muscle
four types of tissues
sends and receives electrical impulses
how does the nervous system contribute to homeostasis?
what system sends chem messengers called hormones to maintain homeostasis?
flow from receptor to control center
flow from control center to effector
are positive feedback mechanisms useful for maintaining homeostasis?
Oxytocin (during contractions)
what is an example of a positive feedback mechanism?
h o n c
what elements are common in the human body?
A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
uneven sharing of electrons
a molecule that has two poles, or regions, with opposite charges
what is responsible for surface tension?
monosaccharides (simple sugars)
monomer of carbohydrates
C H O
elements in carbohydrates
1 2 1
ratio of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen in carbohydrates
how many carbons are in a simple sugar?
two simple sugars bonded together via dehydration synthesis
in what process are monomers released by addition of h2o, breaking the covalent bonds
long chains of monosaccharides
what is the major function of carbohydrates?
c h o
what elements are in lipids
all single covalent and solid at rt
one double bond and liquid at room temp
more than one double bond (liquid at rt)
(1) triglycerides (2) phospholipids (3) steroids
classes of lipids
glycerol + 2 fatty acids + 1 phosphate group; makes up membrane bilayers of cells; hydrophobic interiors and hydrophillic exteriors
lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings; steroid hormones, cholesterol stabilizes membranes
c h o n
what are the atoms in proteins?
what are the monomers of proteins?
polypeptides and proteins
What are the polymers of proteins?
10-50 amino acids
50 or more amino acids
(1) movement (2) structural function (3) catalysis (4) transport (5) regulation of pH (6) body defense
functions of proteins (6)
mechanical support and movement
function of fibrous proteins
catalysis, ph, body defense, protein management
function of globular proteins
(1) nonpolar (2) polar (3) electrically charged (acidic or basic)
3 types of amino acids
what process links amino acids together?
what type of bond is between amino acids?
amino acid sequence
primary structure of a protein
beta sheets or alpha helix
secondary structure of a protein
is there intra or intermolecular bonding between the alpha helices and beta sheets?
fold in on itself to expose polar and hide nonpolar portions
2 or more polypeptides combine to form a functional protein
most enzymes are _____________
regulate and accelerate rate of biochemical reactions without being used up
lowers activation energy
role of enzymes
enzymes unfold and lose their shape
what are the largest molecules in the body (macromolecules)
monomers of nucleic acids
c u t
Adenine and Guanine
Adenine, 3 Phosphate Groups, Ribose
What makes up ATP?
high energy bonds
chem bonds between phosphate groups
normal pH range for cpr
pH < 7.35
pH above 7.45
fluid that bathes cells
blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid are examples of:
saliva and mucus
The substance in which animal tissue cells are embedded, consisting of protein and polysaccharides.
fluid mosaic model
model that describes the arrangement and movement of the molecules that make up a cell membrane
A lipid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids.
provide stiffness and structural support
role of cholesterol
A protein with one or more carbohydrates covalently attached to it.
a lipid with one or more covalently attached carbohydrates
sugar replaces phosphate head group
superficial membrane carbohydrates and proteins (glycoproteins, glycolipids) involved in cell recognition, binding extracellular structures, lubrication of cell surface
integral membrane proteins
insert into plasma membrane
peripheral membrane proteins
on top of plasma membrane
crosses entire plasma membrane
fingerlike extensions of the plasma membrane
maximize absorption (by increasing surface area)
role of microvilli
pushes on surface of membrane, creating microvilli
microtubules sprouting from centrioles
moves substances in one direction across cell surfaces
sensitive to mechanical stimulation
interlocking proteins from each cell; "zipper" or "ziplock bag"
where are tight junctions found
anchoring junctions that prevent cells from being pulled apart
in heart and skin
where are desmosomes found?
communicating junctions aka nexus
channels that allow molecules to pass back and forth
cardiac, smooth muscle, nervous system
where are connexons found?
requires no energy input
movement of molecules from high to low concentration
size and temperature
Speed of diffusion is influenced by _____ of molecule and _____.
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