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34 terms

Physical Science: Chapter 2 - Introduction to Matter

What is chemistry?
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matter
anything that has mass and occupies space
chemistry
the study of the properties of matter and how matter changes
substance
a single kind of matter that is pure and has a specific set of properties
physical property
a characteristic of a pure substance that can be observed without changing it into another substance
chemical property
a characteristic of a pure substance that describes its ability to change into a different substance
element
a pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical or physical means; one of about 100 basic materials that make up all matter
atom
the basic particle from which all elements are made
chemical bond
the force that holds atoms together
molecule
a neutral particle made of two or more atoms joined by covalent bonds
compound
a pure substance made of two or more elements chemically combined
chemical formula
a combination of symbols that represents the elements in a compound and their proportions
mixture
two or more substances that are mixed together but not chemically combined
heterogeneous mixture
a mixture in which pure substances are unevenly distributed throughout the mixture
homogeneous mixture
a mixture in which substances are evenly distributed through the mixture
solution
a well-mixed mixture containing a solvent and at least one solute that has the same properties throughout
weight
a measure of the force of gravity on an object
mass
a measure of how much matter is in an object
International System of Units
(SI) the system of units (SI) used by scientists to measure the properties of matter
volume
the amount of space that matter occupies
density
the ratio of the mass of a substance to its volume
physical change
a change in a substance that does not change its identity
chemical change
a change in which one or more substances combine or break apart to form new substances
law of conservation of mass
the principle that the total amount of matter is neither created nor destroyed during any chemical or physical change
energy
the ability to do work or cause change; the ability to move an object some distance
temperature
a measure of the average energy of motion of the particles of a substance
thermal energy
the total potential and kinetic energy of the particles in an object
endothermic change
a change in which energy is taken in
exothermic change
a change in which energy is given off
kinetic energy
energy that an object has due to its motion
potential energy
stored energy that results from the position or shape of an object
chemical energy
a form of potential energy that is stored in chemical bonds between atoms
electromagnetic energy
a form of energy that travels through space as waves
electrical energy
the energy of moving electrical charges
electrode
a metal strip that conducts electricity; a metal part of an electrochemical cell, which gains or loses electrons