Challenge B Introductory Logic Intro,Unit 1 Canada

Introductory Logic by Nance and Wilson
the science and art of reasoning well
law of excluded middle
any statement is either true or false
law of identity
if a statement is true, then it is true
law of Non-Contradiction
a statement cannot be both true and false
formal logic
deals directly with the proper modes of reasoning
Informal Logic
deals with operations of thinking that are indirectly related to reasoning
reasoning with probability from examples or experience to general rules
the reasoning with certainty from premises to conclusions
a concept that can be expressed precisely
a statement that gives the meaning of a term
a word is ambiguous if it has more than one possible meaning
Vague word
is one whose extent is unclear
genus of a term
is a term that is more general, broad, or abstract than the original term and includes it
species of a term
is a term that is more specific, narrow, or concrete than the original term and is included by it.
extension of a term
the sum of all the individual objects described by it
intension of a term
is the sum of all common attributes denoted by the term