Unit 7a: Memory
Notecards of AP Psychology
Terms in this set (43)
Information processing theory
Used to form and retrieve memories. To remember any event, we must get information into our brain, retain that information, and later get it back out. The brain encodes sensory information into a neural language. Like a computer how it encodes, stores, and retrieves information. The computer permanently stores vast amounts of information on a drive, from which it can later be retrieved.
When information comes into our memory system (from sensory input), it needs to be changed into a form that the system can cope with, so that it can be stored. Think of this as similar to changing your money into a different currency when you travel from one country to another. For example, a word which is seen (in a book) may be stored if it is changed (encoded) into a sound or a meaning (i.e. semantic processing)
The retention of encoded information over time.This concerns the nature of memory stores, i.e. where the information is stored, how long the memory lasts for (duration), how much can be stored at any time (capacity) and what kind of information is held. The way we store information affects the way we retrieve it. There has been a significant amount of research regarding the differences between Short Term Memory (STM ) and Long Term Memory (LTM).
The process of getting information out of memory storage. If we can't remember something, it may be because we are unable to retrieve it. When we are asked to retrieve something from memory, the differences between STM and LTM become very clear.
The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.Sensory memory is the shortest-term element of memory. It is the ability to retain impressions of sensory information after the original stimuli have ended. It acts as a kind of buffer for stimuli received through the five senses of sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch, which are retained accurately, but very briefly. For example, the ability to look at something and remember what it looked like with just a second of observation is an example of sensory memory.
Short term memory
STM is stored and retrieved sequentially. For example, if a group of participants are given a list of words to remember, and then asked to recall the fourth word on the list, participants go through the list in the order they heard it in order to retrieve the information. Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.
Long term memory
LTM is stored and retrieved by association. This is why you can remember what you went upstairs for if you go back to the room where you first thought about it. The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.Some information, such as where you ate dinner yesterday, you process automatically. Other information, such as this unit's concepts, requires effort to encode and remember.
The processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving.
The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in sconsciousness or to encode it for storage.However if you say something over and over, you are more likely to use your short term memory and not remember it as long.Even after we learn material, additional rehearsal (overlearning) increases retention. It's like if you memorize a concept's notes, you usually forget it later on.
We learn material more effectively and easily when we study it several times spaced out over a longer time span, rather than trying to learn it in a short period of time. As you can guess, this means that cramming for an exam the night before is not as effective as studying material each night over a week or some period of time. There's one caveat - this holds true for material you want to store for a long time (i.e., really store it in memory), whereas cramming can work to store information for short periods of time.
Serial position effect
Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list. Many people performed experiments that proved this, Including Murdlock. Murdock suggested that words early in the list were put into long term memory (primacy effect) because the person has time to rehearse each word acoustically. Words from the end of the list went into short term memory (recency effect) which can typically hold about 7 items.It's like an asymtope where the top and and botttom are seen but not the sliver in the mifddle, thats the words that aren't remembered.
The encoding of picture images. For example, Advertisements that show the effects of fake tanning visually rather than telling someone can easily get the message across can be more effective
The encoding of sound, especially the sound of words. When doing a foreign language you complete exercises to help be able to hear words or sentences and retain them, just long enough to write them down.
The encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words. I We associate it with what we already know. It's like learning spanish when your a fluent english speaker. You associate the spanish with a word you already know in english.
Imagery and Memory
Mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding. For example, trying to remember a phone number by repeating it in your head is a common method, but what might enhance your processing of the information might be to use imagery - maybe visualize the numbers being written on a chalk board. This allows you to create a mental picture of the numbers that may be processed more completely.
Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices. Ex. Ones I use in these flashcards
Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically. We learn more easily if we are learning a word over and over again rather than a letter over and over again.Acronyms are a way of chunking imformation to remember it.
Complex information broken down into broad concepts and futhur divided into categories and sub-categoreies. This can help students not feel so overwhelmed. Sub-targets are used when learning a topic in Math or Science.
A happy fact of life: For most people, the negative emotion recalled from bad events fades more rapidly than the positive emotion recalled from good events Our brain tries really hard for us to be happy, but sometimes it will happen, but when it does it shouldn't last very long.
A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second. Having photographic memory for a very limited amount of time every time you see something
A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
Long term potentiation
An increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.
Consolidation is primarily a Neuropsychology term, referring to a process in which information is stored in various parts of the brain and then put together fairly quickly to "recall" an event or memory. The neurons in one part of the brain establish pathways or connections to neurons elsewhere so that even if one part is destroyed, other types of memory could be preserved. We can compare Consolidation to the backup disk that we use to store some of the documents in our hard drive.
(cAMP response element binding)CREB proteins in neurons are thought to be involved in the formation of long-term memories;They are necessary for the late stage of long term potentiation.There are activator and repressor forms of CREB. Flies genetically engineered to overexpress the inactive form of CREB lose their ability to retain long term memory. CREB is also important for the survival of neurons, as shown in genetically engineered mice, where CREB and CREM were deleted in the brain. If CREB is lost in the whole developing mouse embryo, the mice die immediately after birth, again highlighting the critical role of CREB in promoting survival.
A neural center that is located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage.
The "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance. The cerebellum plays an important part in our forming and storing of implicit memories. So if you have your cerrebelum you may be classically conditioned and not even know it, but will exhibit the behavior.
A Retrieval Cue is a prompt that help us remember. When we make a new memory, we include certain information about the situation that act as triggers to access the memory. For example, when someone is introduced to us at a party, we don't only store the name and appearance of the new acquaintance in our memory. We also include external cues about the situtation like what kind of party it was, who made the introduction, what cocktails were served, or what music was playing. We also include internal cues like what mood you were in at the time, or what you thought of the person being introduced. When we try to recall the person, having one or more of these cues present will help us remember better.
The activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response.For example, an individual who has just purchased a new car may now start to notice with more frequency other people driving her same make and model. This person has been primed to recognize more readily a car like hers because of the experience she has driving and owning one.
Context (environmental factors) that surrounds an event effects how an event is perceived and remembered. This effect, that is largely used in the science of marketing, holds that an event is more favorably perceived and remembered when the surrounding environment is comfortable and appealing. For example, when a person goes shopping or eats out, they are much more likely to spend time in a comfortable and appealing environment thereby increasing the likelihood of making purchases and returning to shop or eat there again.
State Dependent memory
the retrieval of a memory is most effective when an individual is in the same state of consciousness as it was when the memory was formed. The term is typically used to describe states of consciousness induced by psychoactive drugs—most commonly, alcohol.This type of memory applies only to the individual's internal environment.
Mood Congruent Memory
The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.For this reason, when we feel happy we recall other happy memories. Likewise, when we feel depressed we remember other unhappy events.
Encoding Failure refers to the brain's occasional failure to create a memory link. Encoding refers to the brain's ability to store and recall events and information, either short or long-term. This faculty can fail for a number of reasons; trauma or substance use being the most common. When this happens, it can prevent the brain from creating and storing memories. Many of us can identify times in our lives where, due to an accident, traumatic event or substance use, we are unable to remember specific events or actions.
We store in long-term memory what's important to us or what we've rehearsed. But sometimes even stored information cannot be accessed, which leads to forgetting.We have seen that forgotten events are like books you can't find in your high school library—some because they were never acquired (not encoded), others because they were discarded (stored memories decay).
there are times when an event or an action is so painful that we can't deal with the memory of it, so we repress the memory completely. By pushing the memory into the subconscious and actively repressing it, we are unable to recall the memory. So in essence, motivated forgetting is purposeful forgetting, even if it's not purposeful at a conscious level. You can cause yourself to forget things, even numbers that you have known all your life.
Decay is a type of forgetting that occurs when memories fade over time. This does NOT apply to Long Term Memory, but rather sensory storage and Short Term Memory. The main reason this occurs in sensory and/or short term memory is that we don't need to process and store all the information that we encounter in the world, so we simply don't attend to, recognize, or rehearse all the information, and this information just fades away not to be stored in our long term memories.
Elizabeth Loftus and her colleagues (1996) have experimentally implanted false memories of childhood traumas. They discovered that when a trusted person was there(parent), the child made up a story that didnit exist.
Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.when we witness an event and then get some incorrect information about that event, we incorporate that incorrect information (misinformation) into our memory of the event. The result in an altered memory of the event. 10 people witness a crime and when asked, there are 10 different versions of the crime
Memory can be manipulated if told enough that it is true, and then what's amazing is that we create our own memories on top of that. Like adding to the story. DIstorting what is already there to something completely different.
A false memory is a fabricated or distorted recollection of an event that did not actually happen. People often think of memory as something like a video recorder, accurately documenting and storing everything that happens with perfect accuracy and clarity. In reality, memory is very prone to fallacy. People can feel completely confident that their memory is accurate, but this confidence is no guarantee that a particular memory is correct.
A confederate is an actor who participates in an experiment as a subject along with the participant(s), but is not the one being observed or measure for they are working for the researcher. Their role varies by the type of experiment being conducted and the objective of the researcher.For example, the lady who beat up the Bobo doll.
When a study or experiment ends, researchers are required to "debrief" participants. In a "debriefing" a researcher explains the purpose of the study, explains the use of deception (if any was used), encourages the participant to ask questions about the study, and allows the researcher to address any harm to the participant that may have resulted from their participation in the study. Debriefing is important to make sure the participant does not feel harmed from the the study in any way.