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Grammar rules from Memoria Press for Henle Latin

Genitive singular of 3rd declension nouns


Natural gender rule

- applies to all declensions
- a noun naming a male person is masculine
- a noun naming a female person is feminine

Feminine endings for 3rd declension nouns only


Masculine endings for 3rd declension nouns only


Neuter endings for 3rd declension nouns only


3rd declension poem

In masculīnī generis,
are words with os, nis, guis, or cis,
in es (-itis) and ex (-icis);
as neuter marks the -us (with -ris)

3rd declension masculine and feminine i-stem rule

- same number of syllables in the nominative singular and genitive singular (example, hostis, hostis)
- stem ends in 2 consonants (example, geNTis)

3rd declension neuter i-stem rule

-e , -al , -ar

predicate noun case


Position of forms of "sum"

Anywhere in the sentence

Case for possessives and "of" phrases


Direct object case


Position of verb

Usually last, except for forms of "sum"

Subject/verb agreement

The verb agrees with its subject in person and number

Subject case


Gender of 1st declension nouns

feminine, unless they name a male (PAIN)

Genitive singular of 1st declension nouns


Two ways to indicate indirect objects in English

- "to" / "for"
- word order

Indirect object case, or the "to/for" case


Position of adverb

Usually immediately before the word it modifies

Gender of 2nd declension nouns

-us : masculine
-um: neuter

Genitive singular of 2nd declension nouns

- ī

Unique characteristic of all neuter nouns and adjectives

the nominative and accusative are the same, both in the singular and the plural

Prepositions take either of what cases?

accusative or ablative


- a noun or a phrase that is "put beside" another noun to rename or explain it
- set off by commas

Agreement rule for appositives

an appositive agrees with its noun in case and number

Six 3rd declension neuter nouns in the first part of Henle

flūmen, flūminis
iter, iteneris
corpus, corporis
vulnus, vulneris
agmen, agminis
nomen, nominis

There is, or there are


Genitive singular ending of 4th declension nouns


Gender of 4th declension nouns

usually masculine

Accusative or ablative: "in"

accusative if in motion
ablative if in position

Genitive singular ending of 5th declension nouns


Gender of 5th declension nouns

usually feminine

The two groups of adjectives

(1) 1st/2nd declension
(2) 3rd declension

Adjective/noun agreement

An adjective agrees with its noun in gender, number, and case, but not necessarily declension

Position rule for adjectives

Adjectives of quantity usually precede their nouns; adjectives of quality usually follow.

Predicate adjective case


Three basic characteristics of VERBS

Verbs change their form to express


The grammatical concept of PERSON

Indicates either

1st person (person speaking)
2nd person (person spoken to)
3rd person (person spoken about)

Principal parts of VERBS

the four main forms on whose stems all other forms of the verb are built.

The sign of the first conjugation

All verbs whose present infinitive active (2nd principal part) ends in -are belong to the 1st conjugation

Four principal parts of the 1st conjugation (laudo)


(laudo, laudare, laudavi, laudatus)

How to find and use the present stem

Find the present stem by dropping the ending from the second principal part, and tack on the present, imperfect and future tenses.

Personal endings of VERBS

The personal endings of all Latin verbs are: --, -s, -t, -mus, -tis, -nt

How to tell fist conjugation verbs

The endings in the 1st conjugation begins with "a"

Three present tense forms in English

1. You praise
2. You are praising
3. You do praise

Subject-verb agreement

A verb agrees with its subject in PERSON and NUMBER

How to form imperfect tense

Use the present stem (2nd principal part, whack off the "are", "ere", "ire", etc.)

How to tell something is imperfect tense

It has "ba"

How to tell something is future tense

It has "bi"

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