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Henle Latin I - Grammar

Grammar rules from Memoria Press for Henle Latin
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Genitive singular of 3rd declension nouns
-is
Natural gender rule
- applies to all declensions
- a noun naming a male person is masculine
- a noun naming a female person is feminine
Feminine endings for 3rd declension nouns only
S O X
Masculine endings for 3rd declension nouns only
E R R O R
Neuter endings for 3rd declension nouns only
L A N C E T
3rd declension poem
In masculīnī generis,
are words with os, nis, guis, or cis,
in es (-itis) and ex (-icis);
as neuter marks the -us (with -ris)
3rd declension masculine and feminine i-stem rule
- same number of syllables in the nominative singular and genitive singular (example, hostis, hostis)
- stem ends in 2 consonants (example, geNTis)
3rd declension neuter i-stem rule
-e , -al , -ar
predicate noun case
nominative
Position of forms of "sum"
Anywhere in the sentence
Case for possessives and "of" phrases
genitive
Direct object case
accusative
Position of verb
Usually last, except for forms of "sum"
Subject/verb agreement
The verb agrees with its subject in person and number
Subject case
nominative
Gender of 1st declension nouns
feminine, unless they name a male (PAIN)
Genitive singular of 1st declension nouns
-ae
Two ways to indicate indirect objects in English
- "to" / "for"
- word order
Indirect object case, or the "to/for" case
dative
Position of adverb
Usually immediately before the word it modifies
Gender of 2nd declension nouns
-us : masculine
-um: neuter
Genitive singular of 2nd declension nouns
- ī
Unique characteristic of all neuter nouns and adjectives
the nominative and accusative are the same, both in the singular and the plural
Prepositions take either of what cases?
accusative or ablative
Appositive
- a noun or a phrase that is "put beside" another noun to rename or explain it
- set off by commas
Agreement rule for appositives
an appositive agrees with its noun in case and number
Six 3rd declension neuter nouns in the first part of Henle
flūmen, flūminis
iter, iteneris
corpus, corporis
vulnus, vulneris
agmen, agminis
nomen, nominis
There is, or there are
est
sunt
Genitive singular ending of 4th declension nouns
-ūs
Gender of 4th declension nouns
usually masculine
Accusative or ablative: "in"
accusative if in motion
ablative if in position
Genitive singular ending of 5th declension nouns
-eī
Gender of 5th declension nouns
usually feminine
The two groups of adjectives
(1) 1st/2nd declension
(2) 3rd declension
Adjective/noun agreement
An adjective agrees with its noun in gender, number, and case, but not necessarily declension
Position rule for adjectives
Adjectives of quantity usually precede their nouns; adjectives of quality usually follow.
Predicate adjective case
nominative
Three basic characteristics of VERBS
Verbs change their form to express

PERSON
NUMBER
TENSE.
The grammatical concept of PERSON
Indicates either

1st person (person speaking)
2nd person (person spoken to)
3rd person (person spoken about)
Principal parts of VERBS
the four main forms on whose stems all other forms of the verb are built.
The sign of the first conjugation
All verbs whose present infinitive active (2nd principal part) ends in -are belong to the 1st conjugation
Four principal parts of the 1st conjugation (laudo)
-o
-are
-avi
atus

(laudo, laudare, laudavi, laudatus)
How to find and use the present stem
Find the present stem by dropping the ending from the second principal part, and tack on the present, imperfect and future tenses.
Personal endings of VERBS
The personal endings of all Latin verbs are: --, -s, -t, -mus, -tis, -nt
How to tell fist conjugation verbs
The endings in the 1st conjugation begins with "a"
Three present tense forms in English
1. You praise
2. You are praising
3. You do praise
Subject-verb agreement
A verb agrees with its subject in PERSON and NUMBER
How to form imperfect tense
Use the present stem (2nd principal part, whack off the "are", "ere", "ire", etc.)
How to tell something is imperfect tense
It has "ba"
How to tell something is future tense
It has "bi"