Psychology of the offender
Terms in this set (149)
Which of the following is listed as a criticism of the guilty but mentally ill (GBMI) verdict?
all of the above
It has not lived up to the promise that mentally ill offenders would be more likely to receive treatment.
It requires jurors to make the difficult distinction between mental illness that results in insanity and mental illness that does not.
There seems to be no difference in treatment or outcome of those found GBMI and those simply found guilty.
In the Columbia University Law School Study, A Broken System: Error Rates in Capital Cases, it was determined that serious mistakes had been made in ___________ of the cases in which there was a capital conviction (U.S. cases between 1973 and 1995 were analyzed).
What happens to someone found guilty but mentally ill?
The defendant will typically receive the same sentence as someone who was "guilty," but the defendant is supposed to start his or her sentence in a mental health facility and then be transferred to prison after treatment is completed.
Jeffrey Dahmer admitted killing 15 young men. During his trial, the jurors considered his insanity plea. Wisconsin defines insanity using the Brawner rule, and the jurors decided that Dahmer was sane. According to your textbook, what potentially caused the jurors to come to this conclusion?
Dahmer was careful to kill his victims in a manner that minimized his chances of being caught suggesting that he appreciated that his behavior was wrong and could control it.
In 1972, the U.S. Supreme Court in __________________abolished the death penalty on the grounds that it constituted "cruel and unusual punishment;" however, the Supreme Court reinstated the possibility of the death penalty in ___________.
Furman v. Georgia; Gregg v. Georgia (1976)
Wrongdoers should compensate victims for their damages and losses. This refers to which of the following punishment goals?
According to the focal concerns theory of judicial decision making, what do judges focus on when making decisions?
all of the above
consequences of the sentence
the defendant's blameworthiness
protection of the community
Which of the following would be considered a basic foundational question that a mental health professional would focus on when evaluating adjudicative competence (including competency to stand trial)?
all of the above
Can the defendant appreciate his or her legal predicament?
Can the defendant use reasoning to relate relevant information to his or her attorney?
Can the defendant understand the basic elements of the adversarial process?
When police have been called to scene where there is someone who may be suffering from a mental disorder, in many cities, police are instructed to use force and arrest the individual just as they would any other citizen.
According to information provided in your textbook, the public tends to favor ____________ sentencing options for less serious offenses and for younger offenders, but favors ____________ sentencing for adult offenders, particularly those who have committed serious crimes.
Paula is undergoing a semi-structured interview to evaluate her competency. During the interview Paula's factual and rational understanding of the proceedings as it pertains to her specific case will be assessed, as well as her ability to consult with counsel. In addition, the interviewer will attempt to determine whether Paula is trying to exaggerate or fake deficits that might make it seem as though she is not competent to stand trial. What test is the interviewer using?
Evalutation of Competence to Stand Trial-Revised
Which of the following would be considered restorative justice?
During the lecture on Malingering, you completed the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test (M-FAST). Approximately what percentage of students "passed" (i.e., successfully faked a mental disorder without detection) the test? (Hint: Try to remember how many people raised their hands after scoring the M-FAST.)
Which of the following is NOT true of the typical defendant who is found NGRI?
Most have criminal records more extensive than those of defendants who are not insane.
A pair of parents whose child was murdered wants the killer to be executed because they are angry and expect to be satisfied if the killer dies. This reflects which goal of punishment?
Researchers in Wyoming found that those surveyed think that the insanity plea is used in almost half of all criminal cases. True/False: Those surveyed were accurate in their impressions of how often the insanity plea is used.
A competency evaluation measure which presents a hypothetical vignette about a defendant and uses 22 rather wordy items to assess a defendant's understanding of the legal system and reasoning abilities in legal situations is called the
MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool - Criminal Adjudication.
The question of a defendant's competence can be raised by
all of the above
the defense attorney.
the presiding judge.
During the lecture on Justifiable Homicide, I read an article about a European American officer, Sean Groubert, who shot an injured an African American man, Mr. Jones, as the man was following instructions given by the officer. In this article, the journalist suggests:
Given the seemingly ubiquitous messages supplied by media and other cultural sources that African American individuals are inherently dangerous, it is possible the officer reacted to his (perhaps) unconscious fear of African American individuals
Which of the following has been proposed as a component of the battered woman syndrome?
all of the above
In his review of justifiable homicides in the 1970s and 1980s, Alvarez (1992) found that White police and citizen justifiables tended to involve _______ victims whereas those Black police and citizen justifiable homicides involved more __________ victims.
Currently when one is evaluating competence, what really matters is
whether or not a defendant has the ability to participate knowingly and meaningfully in the proceedings and assist the defense attorney.
Which of the following has been shown to impact the sentencing of offenders?
all of the above
It is possible for a psychotic individual to be determined to be competent to stand trial in one trial, but not in another, more complex trial.
Available research suggests that the majority of defendants found not guilty by reason of insanity have been diagnosed with
According to your textbook, some argue an intermediate sanction will be more acceptable to the public if
a shaming penalty is attached.
To reduce the use of judicial discretion, some states have imposed
A and C
C. sentencing guidelines.
A. mandatory minimum sentences.
What is the significance of the Supreme Court case, Ford v. Wainwright (1986)?
Citing the Eighth Amendment, it prohibited the execution of mentally incompetent defendants.
Research suggests that, while in prison, capital murderers tend to commit fewer violent offenses and infractions than the parole eligible population of prison inmates.
Insanity is a psychological concept
When can the government forcibly administer psychotropic medication to render a mentally ill defendant competent to stand trial?
all of the above
when the treatment is unlikely to have side effects that may undermine the trial's fairness
when the treatment is necessary to significantly further important government trial-related interests.
when the treatment is medically appropriate
Approximately what percentage of defendants referred for competency evaluation are typically found competent to stand trial?
According to a recent review of FBI data regarding justified police homicides, young, African American (Black) males were _____ times more likely to be shot and killed than their same-aged European American (White) counterparts.
Karen has been repeatedly beaten by her husband Jack. She used to think about leaving him, but now believes that there is nothing she can do to escape. She no longer sees her friends because it has become harder to hide her bruises. On this particular night Karen made her husband dinner but she was a little late getting it on the table, and she sensed his foul mood. When Jack looked at her in that particular way, she knew he was about to hurt her. Using what you know about the battered women syndrome, you could say that Karen is
The mental health system's counterpart to parole is called:
Which of the following is not a characteristic of the Insanity Defense Reform Act?
It made it possible for mental-health experts to provide ultimate opinions about the defendant's insanity at the time of the crime.
Which of the following is generally true regarding death-qualified jurors?
all of the above
They are more likely to mistrust criminal defendants.
They are prone to side with the prosecution.
They are more concerned with crime control than with due process.
In a capital case, excludables refers to those who
are dismissed because they indicate that they have extreme beliefs about the use of the death penalty.
One purpose of the death penalty could be to exert fear of death in potential law breakers. According to Greenberg and Ruback (1984), which purpose would this be serving?
________________ refers to the defendant's relevant legal capacities after the crime (e.g., for the trial), while _______________ refers to the defendant's mental state at the time the offense was committed.
One of the problems with the Dusky standard is that
it does not specify how the evaluator should judge the sufficiency of rational understanding, ability to consult or factual understanding when assessing competence.
A jury must decide whether a defendant, already judged guilty, should receive the death penalty. In one case (A), the jury is told that the murder of the young victim was done in an especially heinous matter; the defendant raped, murdered, and then mutilated the victim. This fact could argue for the application of the death penalty. This In another case (B), the jury is told that the defendant committed the crime after years of physical abuse, a fact that could argue for a sentence less than death. The example presented in Case A is considered a(n) _______________ factor while the example presented in Case B is considered a(n) _________________factor.
Andrea Yates, in her retrial, was found not guilty by reason of insanity because:
She believed she was saving her children by killing them, which in her mind, was the morally right thing to do
How does the Brawner rule (aka the ALI Standard) differ from the M'Naghten rule?
all of the above
Brawner doesn't require a total lack of appreciation by offenders for their conduct.
Brawner incorporates an emotional as well as a cognitive determinant of criminal action.
Brawner includes a volitional element.
Proponents of the death penalty argue that
all of the above
the death penalty accomplishes specific (i.e., individual) deterrence.
murderers are dangerous people and allowing them to live increases the risk of injury or death to others in the prison.
the death penalty accomplishes general deterrence.
The ruling that competence to stand trial is a "sufficient present ability to consult with [one's] attorney with a reasonable degree of rational understanding, and...a rational, as well as factual understanding of the proceedings" stems out of which Supreme Court case?
Dusky v. United States (1960)
The idea that punishment should be delivered to those who deserve it (i.e., the criminal should get their 'just desserts'), refers to which of the following punishment goals?
Most individuals with a mental disorder (e.g., depression, anxiety, and psychosis) will become violent toward others in their lifetimes.
Which of the following scenarios could indicate a higher risk of violence for someone with a mental disorder?
Johnny experiences strong delusions that he is the new Savior. He hears the "voice of God" telling him to "strike down" all of the sinners in the world. He is on medication, which helps the hallucinations. He recently was laid-off from his job due to company cut-backs. Also, he just found out his sister and brother-in-law, with whom he lives, are getting a divorce; they have been having a lot of loud arguments lately.
In Atkins v. Virginia, the Supreme Court held that persons with _________________ are exempt from the death penalty.
Boris has been stopped for drunk driving. Before the police question Boris, must they give him the Miranda warning?
Jim, a disgruntled postal worker, rushed into the post office one Thursday afternoon and sprayed his fellow employees with gunfire, killing ten and wounding many more. According to lecture, what type of multiple murderer is Jim?
a mass murderer
In class discussion, we determined that Richard Kuklinski has all of the following characteristics of psychopathy EXCEPT
Lack of remorse
Truth Tellers tend to ________________________; while lying individuals tend to __________________________.
maintain full eye contact and talk in a higher-pitched voice; forget certain
details and make more speech errors.
The video, Mind of a Rampage Killer, highlighted which of the following risk factors mentioned in your textbook?
Teased and rejected by peers
The other race effect refers to the idea that
eyewitnesses are usually better at recognizing and identifying members of their own race or ethnic group than members of another race or ethnic group
A mother is on trial for murdering her baby. Based on our discussion of juror personality characteristics, those who are authoritarian are more likely to
vote for conviction.
Trevor was taken to the police station for questioning because he was suspected of committing a robbery. While the police are transporting Trevor to the station, he confesses. The police had not yet begun questioning Trevor and had not yet given him the Miranda warning. Is this confession admissible?
School-ground shootings are one of the most common type of mass murder.
Last night Laura was robbed at gunpoint. When asked to describe the perpetrator, she found that all she could remember was the gun and not the way the perpetrator looked. Which of the best following describes this circumstance?
weapon focus effect
Which of the following was found by Brewer and Burke (2002) to have a strong impact on jurors' verdict decisions?
the witness' level of confidence
________________________ is when someone unconsciously selects the information he or she will focus on and process most likely because of having a limited attentional capacity and an inability to process a lot of information at one time.
Diane was the sole witness to a crime. After witnessing the crime, she talked with her husband and her co-workers about what she saw. According to your textbook, these discussions potentially can taint her memory of the crime event for it can
introduce post-event information that may alter her memory for the original event.
People with prejudicial attitudes are more likely to experience the other race effect than those without prejudices.
Sheri has been charged with the murder of a child that was in her care. When she was first brought in for questioning, she denied doing anything to hurt the child, but after 16 hours of questioning, she starts to believe that she did, in fact, hurt the child (in actuality, she didn't). What type of false confession is this according to Kassin and Wrightsman (1985)?
internalized false confession
As illustrated by the Rodney King case discussed in class, one reason the courts ruled that juries should be more representative of the population is that verdicts will be more likely to be accepted by the
A person who advocates punishment for those who violate established norms, who strictly adheres to conventional values, and who identifies with powerful figures would
score high on a measure of authoritarianism.
Sometimes police just look for evidence that implicates a suspect that has been identified by an eyewitness and stop investigating any other leads. This situation is an illustration of
The Daubert decision listed four factors that judges should consider in assessing the validity and subsequent admissibility of the expert's testimony. Which of the following is not one of these four factors?
the strength of the argument for the pertinent side
In class, we discussed potential motivations for Richard Kuklinski's murders. Which of the following was NOT one we identified?
A total of 24 White persons and six Black persons are called for jury duty. The trial is for armed robbery, the defendant is Black, and the prosecuting attorney uses peremptory challenges given to him to exclude the six Black people. What should the judge do, according to recent Supreme Court decisions?
ask the prosecuting attorney to explain the grounds for each of his six decisions and determine if the attorney had grounds for dismissal other than race
Kevin, a suspect for murder, is being interrogated at his local police station. The police have Kevin in a small, soundproof room, sitting in an armless chair. The police officer is leaning in and accusing Kevin of doing horrific things to the victim. The police officer says that he doesn't understand why Kevin would do such a horrible thing, but that they have "mounds" of evidence against him (this last part is a lie). Which of these details is not recommended by Inbau et al. in their book Criminal Interrogation and Confessions?
The police shouldn't say that they don't understand why Kevin would do the crime in question.
Police detectives often begin an interrogation with a belief that the suspect is guilty. This presumption of guilt can apparently influence the way a detective conducts the questioning. The danger here is that, under these conditions, the detectives will seek out information that verifies that belief and overlook information that does not fit. Suspects, in turn, act more defensively and are more likely to look guilty. This process is referred to as
Greg is viewing a lineup with simultaneous presentation. He had told police that the person he saw commit the crime is white with light color hair. When presented with six white people in his lineup, he chooses the person who has the lightest color hair in the group. How would we best characterize this judgment?
It is a relative judgment.
In Lester's (2010) descriptive study on suicide rates in serial and mass murderers, he concluded
Only a small percentage of serial killers commit suicide
Researchers recommend that a person conducting a lineup should tell the witness that the culprit may or may not be present in the lineup. Without this instruction, what tends to happen?
all of the above
The eyewitness may feel that they must choose someone.
False identifications tend to increase.
The eyewitness tends to choose the person who most resembles the person they witnessed.
Thomas is the victim of a crime, and he has been called down to the police station to view a lineup. After some thought, he chooses the fourth person from the left. The detective administering the lineup says, "Good, we thought that was the one." According to research presented in your textbook, what is the likely result of this confirming feedback?
all of the above
Thomas is more willing to testify at the trial.
Thomas now sees this person's face more clearly in his memories of the crime.
Thomas feels more confident about his identification.
In some cases a defendant who had confessed will enter a plea of not guilty and go to trial. If the jury convicts this defendant, judges are likely to sentence the defendant _____________
harshly because they tend to punish offenders who waste resources.
Asking subjects to recall a series of events in reverse chronological order and requiring them to determine whether a figure that reappears on a computer screen is similar to a figure seen earlier would likely be part of
a cognitive load interview.
Claire is a prospective juror in a case in which there has been a lot of pretrial publicity. Claire maintains that despite the fact that she has heard of the defendant and is aware of some of the negative publicity, she will be impartial. According to information presented in class, should Claire be believed and chosen as a juror?
No, people do not always recognize the extent of their biases or they may not be willing to admit to them.
Which of the following is not listed in your textbook as a possible safeguard against the effects of pretrial publicity?
Change the name of the defendant, leading jurors to believe they are not hearing the publicized case.
When one does not consider an external situation as a determinant of someone's behavior but rather believes the behavior is caused by internal factors specific to the person, this is an example of
fundamental attribution error
Some problems with "profiling" school shooters include:
School shootings occur at a very low rate
Jaime has been in and out of psychiatric facilities for most of his life due to his chronic psychological instability, but he has been living at home for the last three months. Jaime has recently been named as a suspect in a rape case, and following an investigation, the police arrest him. As part of their usual procedure, the police read Jaime his Miranda rights, and although Jaime doesn't understand them, he says he does. The police question Jaime for several hours until he confesses. Is Jaime's statement admissible?
If Jaime's lawyer says that Jaime didn't understand the Miranda warning because of his psychological instability, then Jaime's statement will not be admissible.
For a white eyewitness to correctly identify a black culprit, those who provide a cognitive interpretation of the other race effect, a physiognomic variability approach, might suggest that the eyewitness
focus on encoding the culprit's skin tone.
One of the proposed reforms regarding expert testimony has been to bar any reference to "expert" testimony, and instead refer to
The police are questioning Stuart and they tell him that they have a witness who saw him outside the victim's apartment. This is not true; they have no such witness. Are the police allowed to use a trick like this when they are trying to get a confession?
Research suggests jurors overestimate eyewitness accuracy because
all of the above
they believe eyewitness testimony reflects memory quality, not questioning or line up procedures.
they trust eyewitness's over-confidence in their identifications.
they assume eyewitnesses are accurate and have credible memories.
Bob has long been inspired by sadistic fantasies. To fuel his fantasies and satisfy his need for control and dominance, he tortures and kills prostitutes. According to Fox and Levin, Bob's motivation for his serial murders would best be classified as a need for
Those wrongly imprisoned are typically well compensated for the time they spent in prison.
In their meta-analysis, Bond and DePaulo (2006) found that people correctly detect deception
about 50% of the time
Recording police interrogations can improve the quality of interrogations by
both A. and B
A. helping to ensure that police detectives are not coercive when
B. helping to ensure that suspects cannot inappropriately claim to have been coerced during interrogation.
Physiological measures, by themselves, can distinguish between guilt and which of the following negative emotions?
neither A nor B
neither A nor B
If voir dire reveals that a juror is biased, that juror is excluded for
Overall, available research suggests jurors exposed to pretrial publicity are __________________ to favor the ____________________.
more likely; prosecution
Research shows that heterogeneous groups are _____. (Hint: think about jury selection.)
better problem solvers than homogenous groups.
The cognitive interview that emphasizes context reinstatement would not involve
hypnotizing the victim
A main difference between the Control Question Test (CQT) and the Concealed Knowledge Test (CKT) is that the CQT is designed to detect lying while the CKT is not.
Someone who is fidgeting is likely lying
Walter Reckless' containment theory proposed that
social pressure and rules help to control the incidence of crime.
Researchers have found that the complete absence of the activity of the enzyme _______________ coupled with a ________________ showed some form of antisocial behavior in 85% of individuals studied in New Zealand.
MAOA; history of maltreatment
According to Wilson and Herrnstein (1985), an important personality factor is time discounting. Considering this concept, which type of person is most likely to take part in criminal behavior?
an impulsive person
Which of the following theories explains all kinds of criminal behavior?
none of the above; no one theory explains all kinds of criminal behavior
Adoption studies have suggested that
males with biological parents with criminal histories are more likely to have a criminal record
__________________ play a role in shaping the leading theories in criminology.
all of the above
all of the above
Bandura's book, Aggression: A Social Learning Analysis, emphasizes modeling of aggression in three contexts. Which one of the following is not one of the areas emphasized?
Those within the classical school of criminology believed which of the following with regard to punishment?
The punishment should fit the crime.
The theory of focal concerns does not explain crime by
those who are not socially disadvantaged.
According to lecture, what percentage of offenders are incarcerated in the federal prison system for drug-related offenses?
Which is NOT one of Hare's four factors (or domains) of psychopathy?
Asocial (e.g., preferring solitude, introverted)
Which of the following conditions are NOT required for observational learning to occur?
Observer must inform the model he/she approves of the behavior
Lester Zygmanik was charged with murdering his brother, George after George was severely injured in a motorcycle accident. George did not want to live his life as a quadriplegic and asked Lester to kill him; Lester did as his brother asked. If you were a juror in this case and you were making decisions based on black letter law, you would decide that Lester is:
One explanation for psychopathy is that psychopaths were raised in a dysfunctional family. Which of the following represents the implicated parental pattern(s)?
Both A and B
B. parents who are inconsistent in their use of rewards and punishments
A. parents who are cold and distant
What relationship have researchers found between intelligence quotient (IQ) scores and offending?
Offenders have IQs that are about 8-10 points lower than nonoffenders.
The assumption that people will behave antisocially until they learn not to offend through a combination of inner and external constraints fits in which theory?
What is one potential problem with the three-strikes law?
Possible answers: crowds the prisons; does little to deter crime; takes its toll on taxpayers; in some states-imprisons non-violent offenders for lengths of time disproportionate to their crime; leads to racial disparities in the prisons
In contrast to the crime control model, the due process model would subscribe to which of the following statements?
It is better for many guilty persons to go free than to convict one innocent person.
According to Chapter 3, there is ______________ empirical evidence that sociological or biological theories independently predict criminal behavior.
________ argues that society brands persons who commit crimes, thereby leading them to "live up to" negative connotations.
Social Labeling Theory
Wilson and Herrnstein (1985) referred to a "net ratio of gain and losses for criminal and noncriminal behavior." What does this mean?
If the ratio for committing a crime exceeds that for not committing it, the likelihood of the crime being committed increases.
According to criminal profilers, brutal facial injuries to the victim suggest killers that:
knew their victims
The validity of criminal profiling has been called into question by researchers and other professionals. ... Which group's predictions were most accurate, and which subtype of offenders was the group more accurate about?
Expert profilers+detectives; sexual offenders
Samuel has committed several violent offenses and feels no remorse for what he has done. He finds his victims by deceiving them; he approaches a young woman and says he needs directions across town, and then leads her to his car. He then forces the woman into his car and later kills her. If we were to characterize Samuel's problem by claiming that he has a personality defect, which of the following best describes this condition?
In Darly et al.'s research on the public's opinion of the Model Penal Code, how did participants tend to respond when the person in the scenario reached the point of "dangerous proximity" to the crime?
they prescribed punishment that was less severe than if person committed the crime, but more severe than if only preliminary action was taken towards carrying out the crime
Eight-year-old Johnny watches a lot of television, and his favorite programs are very aggressive. What do researchers generally think will be the effect of this frequent viewing of televised violence?
Johnny will likely be more aggressive than those who watch fewer violent programs as TV violence does tend to increase aggression in children.
When faced with making legal decisions, judges are reluctant to make decisions that contradict earlier judicial decisions. This propensity is an example of the principle of:
According to Chapter 3, which of the following is not a stated limitation of the theory of differential opportunity?
Crimes are often committed by those who are part of the lower class.
The theory of differential opportunity does not explain
Both A and B
B. what determines adaptation to blocked opportunities.
A. crimes committed by people who have not been denied opportunities.
Yochelson and Samenow (e.g., 1976) interviewed a small number of "hard-core" offenders and concluded that
criminals think in a different way than noncriminals.
One unique trend for female offenders, in comparison to their male counterparts, is that a sizeable percentage (estimated 54%) offends for the first time in adulthood. Some risk factors unique to this group of female offenders (compared to those who offend for the first time earlier in life) include:
Unmixed victimization and defensive violence against a partner
A potential serial murder has occurred, and law enforcement asked a criminal profiler to assist with the case. If the criminal profiler is examining the data, forming hypotheses based on the organization/disorganization of the crime scene (and other factors), and determining the behavior of the offender and victim, which "step" of profiling is the profiler on?
Which of the following has been cited as potentially causing psychopathic behavior?
both A and B
A. a deficiency in the left hemisphere that impairs executive function
B. low autonomic arousal which generates a need for stimulation
How has the rate of crimes committed by females changed in recent years?
It has increased.
The three-strikes law is a reflection of the ___________ model of the criminal justice system.
Cloward and Ohlin's theory of _____________ assumes that those who grow up in lower socioeconomic subcultures still possess the conventional goals of the middle class. Since society denies them legal means of achieving these goals, they become frustrated and resort to committing crimes.
Some research suggests, for Drug Court Treatment programs, _________ recidivism rates were associated with a _________ duration of treatment.
Which of the following can be considered an antecedent condition in an integration theory of crime?
all of the above
poor social skills
Which of the following characteristics is NOT included in Cleckley's (Mask of Sanity) conceptualization of a psychopath based on his case studies?
General propensity toward major affective reactions
In current research on criminal profiling, these areas strive to:
Establish differences between the behavioral actions of offenders in order to identify subgroups of crime scene types
Understand the development of the offender's criminal career and uniformity across series of crimes
Establish link between subgroups of a crime scene actions and subgroups of offender background characteristics
My favorite class
Psychology of the Offender
Beth and Joanne are jurors for a case in which the defendant has been charged with robbery. Beth has a tendency to make internal, stable and global attributions. Joanne has a tendency to make external, unstable, and specific attributions. Given this information, what are Beth and Joanne's likely ideas about defendant responsibility?
Beth will tend to see the offender as more responsible for his crime than Joanne.
Criminal profiling utilizes ___________________ to determine _______________.
Crime scene characteristics; criminal behavioral and personality characteristics
The positivist school of criminology focused on
understanding crime though the analysis of empirical data.
Which of the following is a basic characteristic of the crime control model of the criminal justice system?
Emphasis in the courts should be on the detection and prosecution of criminals.
Johnny is often restless and emotionally volatile. According to Eysenck's personality theory, Johnny is high on which dimension?
Jimmy and John, best friends, have just stolen some candy bars from a convenience store. Jimmy's brothers all have criminal records, and they encourage Jimmy to commit crimes as well. John, on the other hand, stole the candy to give to his destitute parents so they may eat. The sociological explanation for Jimmy's crime would be that this crime is caused by the _____ subtype, while _____ factors caused John's behavior.
When you are making inferences or attributions about what caused YOU to commit an act that has negative consequences (e.g., a crime), you would tend to blame:
external and unstable causes.
Dysfunction in part of the nervous system has also been discussed as a possible correlate with criminal activity. Which of the following represents this finding?
Criminals show a lower level of autonomic arousal than noncriminals.
Tommy is often spanked for misbehaving. Which theorist would point to this discipline as a model for later aggressive behavior?
Social-psychological theories of crime suggest that crime is
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