34 terms

marketing research study chapter 11

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set of questions used to generate data that meet specific research and survey objectives
questionnaire
*quan/qual
*very flexible
quality of data obtained from questionnaire is directly related to
quality of questionnaire designed
enhance quality of questionnaire
-increasing the usefulness of data generated
-standardize data collection process
0ensure all respondents are asked the same questions in the same manner
*really important for telephone surveys
questionnaire design process
1. research questions
2. determine survey objectives (process of selecting type of questions/the way questions are worded)
3. select data collection method
4. create questions
5. decide layout, flow, design
6. evaluate the questionnaire
research questions..from?
-upper management/client
-guide questionnaire development
-should be limited in no (ensure questionnaire length does not negatively impact response rate)
don't skip from research objective to writing survey questions
-incomplete info will be obtained
us research objective as basis for wiring survey objectives
ensure that the right questions are asked
-purpose of study is achieved
perspetive/parts of smth
dimension
*dimension of cust service=response time/helpful/timeliness
sample research objectives
-what questions to ask
-how to ask
-how sensitive
-compare/ask 4 preference
question format
-open-ended questions
-close ended
-combination?
general rule of thumb in deciding question format
-higher order scales are better
*provide more valuable data
*provide higher forms of data analysis
2 cautions of using higher order scale
-ratio level data= objective, but not usable/more accurate
-respondent's ability and willingness to provide info; sensitive questions?
**questions about income; ordinal =respondent will want to answer more
-inability to recall info
examining survey objective, also need to
decide which the of scale would best capture the data needed
*e.g. find preference-> semantic/likert
*consider target audience
allow respondents to answer in their own words
-exploratory research
-give more possibility
-infinite number of answers
-e.g. essay
open-ended question
-answer blank
-valuable in soliciting recall information when researchers do not want to bias an answer by listing alternative choices
-survey pretest
-identify possible responses when researcher can't anticipate range of responses that may exist
open-ended questions
advantage of open-ended question
-answer is in respondent's own words (own language and terms, may be different from researcher)
-can provide new or different insight (thought process behind decisions/attitudes)
-provide additional alternatives (
-allows for probing (understand why people respond in certain fashion)
disadvantages of open-ended questions
-can be difficult to interpret answer (takes time, expensive)
-editing and coding can be challenging
-potential for interviewer bias
-answer may be shallow and insufficient (if interviewer is not present, can't clarify/ask for more info)
-lower response rate
-recording answer given verbally
-the way it is recorded is important
-ideally=verbatim
-but if too fast= only record general idea
*based on perception of interviewer of what he perceived the respondent said/meant
interviewer bias
-tone/manner when probing questions
-questions that were not written in advance
interviewer bias
-finite number of responses from which to choose
-asked to choose one response from he alternatives list or all he alternatives that apply
closed-ended questions
advantage of close-ended questions
-easy and accurate data coding and entry (save time, prevent process error)
-limited no of responses
-alternative list may help respondent recall (response category in question is available)
-limited interviewer bias (resp select from possible responses; not red verbally/tone of voice/body language
process error in close-ended questions =
1. person coding the paper survey=write down wrong number (1 for male instead of 2)
2. respondent mark his / her response = unclear; which answer is checked
3. individual inaccurately transcribes data (enter number different from true answer)
disadvantages of closed-ended questions
-researchers must generate alternatives (mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive
-respondents must select from given alternatives (esp if "other"c category is not available, don't have "don't know"--> troublesome if resp really know nothing about)
-no freedom for respondent in answer (must select from list of alternatives)
each response category is uniquely different from other response categories
-no overlap between any of the categories
mutually exclusive
categories listed for a question contain all possible answers
collectively exhaustive
mutually exclusive response vs collectively exhaustive, which one is easier?
mutually exclusive
types of closed-ends questions
-dichotomous
-multiple-choice
-scaled-response
closed-ended question
-two response options
-can be answered easily and quickly
-coding and entering data=straightforward
-may not provide enough insight for some questions
dichotomous questions
-does not allow for neutral position
-some individuals may have strong positive feelings, others weak
-scaled response-> will elicit more data
dichotomous questions
-multiple (3 or more) answers from which to choose
-choose one of the list
-mutually exclusive, collectively exhaustive
-no measure of intensity
-for demographic, other classification variables
multiple-choice questions
-all response options
-options are mutually exclusive and collective exhaustive
-each response option=separate variable in the spreadsheet
-easy to answer
-can quickly tabulate answer
-
multiple-response question
multiple-response question hard to generate response categories
-length of the list/no of items listed
-cant be too long
--or else they wont take look at the response, check 1st one that applies
wont take look at the response, check 1st one that applies
position bias
alleviate position bias
1. randomize list of response
--create different versions of the questionnaire
--change order of list
-can be done easily w online survey
--hard on paper=have to print multiple copy